Agenda subject to change.
Updated 13 September 2019

 

The Future of Coastal Lakes in Monmouth County, New Jersey: A Call to Action
Jason Adolf

  • Abstract

    The Future of Coastal Lakes in Monmouth County, New Jersey: A Call to Action

    Jason Adolf1, John A. Tiedemann2, James A. Nickels3, and Thomas O. Herrington3

    1Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey; 2Monmouth University Biology Department, West Long Branch, New Jersey; 3Monmouth University Urban Coast Institute, West Long Branch, New Jersey

    The lakes along Monmouth County’s coast historically provided a variety of recreational opportunities and served as important fish and wildlife habitats. However, decades of intensive development and human activity in the watersheds of these lakes have impacted their ecology and resulted in impaired recreational uses and aesthetics including changes in lake and tributary hydrology, harmful algal blooms, accelerated aquatic plant growth, infilling, increased flooding, and degraded water quality. Unfortunately, these former “crown jewels” of the coastal communities have become little more than receptors of storm water and runoff from the surrounding landscape.

    Attempts to manage the coastal lakes have followed a disjointed path that has limited the success and sustainability of restoration efforts. Coastal Lakes Summits convened in 2008 and 2013 (post Superstorm Sandy) explored the current status of the lakes, identified problems affecting them, and discussed restoration and management needs. The participants concluded that the lakes suffer from a core of common problems and that a regional approach to lake management is desirable, and also highlighted the need to include flood hazard reduction objectives in future lake management and restoration plans.

    Building on the outcomes of the summits and recommendations in a subsequent white paper a new initiative, the Coastal Lakes Observing Network (CLONet) was created. CLONet is a collaborative effort with Monmouth University, local environmental commissions, watershed associations, and other community partners to conduct projects that supply the data and information necessary to develop community-based conservation, restoration, and management strategies for the coastal lakes.

Investigations Into Water Quality and Nutrient Loading of Little Spectacle Pond, Lancaster, Massachusetts
Brea Arvidson

  • Abstract

    Investigations Into Water Quality and Nutrient Loading of Little Spectacle Pond, Lancaster, Massachusetts

    Brea Arvidson

    SŌLitude Lake Management, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts

    Little Spectacle Pond is a highly stratified, 13.35-acre waterbody located in Lancaster, Massachusetts. It flows directly into Spectacle Pond, which is an important town resource for recreation, real estate, and ecological value. Both waterbodies are anthropogenically influenced, and do not have a history of water quality impairment. However, Little Spectacle Pond experienced an algal bloom spanning through November-December of 2017. This caused concern for the potential internal and external sources of impairment for Little Spectacle Pond and prompted a season-long 2018 study of the pond assessing water chemistry, algae community assessments, bathymetry, and sediment-phosphorus. Based on the data, hypolimnetic phosphorus accumulation caused by early-onset anoxia is apparent and could be a primary contributor to the acceleration towards eutrophication of Little Spectacle Pond and ultimately Spectacle Pond. External sources of nutrient loading were further explored and documented.

The Impact of Macrophyte Control on Freshwater Ecosystem Resilience in Temperate Lakes
Patrick Beaupre

  • Abstract

    The Impact of Macrophyte Control on Freshwater Ecosystem Resilience in Temperate Lakes

    Patrick Beaupre1, Chantal Vis2, and Jesse Vermaire1

    1Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Macrophytes are crucial components of aquatic ecosystems and play an important role in the structure and function within these ecosystems⁠. Conversely, large, dense beds of macrophytes are often seen as a nuisance by lake and river users, as they can reduce the aesthetic quality of the water body, hinder water transport and reduce the habitat quality of desirable fish species. Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum L., is a well-documented invasive macrophyte that was introduced to North America in the late 19th century. Due to its ability to proliferate quickly and dominate the littoral zones of the lakes it colonizes it has since spread all across the continent. Economic impacts have been associated with this spread, both from reduced property values⁠ and costly management techniques. These techniques include biological control, mechanical or manual harvesting, shading out with large benthic barriers or the application of waterborne herbicides. While literature related to the efficacy of various management techniques exists, very little is known about the impacts these methods have on aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, as macrophytes are tied to nutrient cycles, any management activity that involves their removal must consider any indirect impacts to trophic status that could occur. In this study, the impacts of mechanical harvesting and benthic barriers on the physical, chemical and biological properties of several lakes in the Rideau Canal waterway, Canada, were investigated. Changes in these properties were measured before and after treatments, and along a phosphorus gradient.

The Québec Lake Monitoring Program
Sébastien Bourget

  • Abstract

    The Québec Lake Monitoring Program

    Sébastien Bourget and Louis Roy

    Direction de la qualité des milieux aquatiques, Direction générale du suivi de l’état de l’environnement, Ministère de l’Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques, Gouvernement du Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    In 2004, the Québec Ministry of the Environment and the Fight against Climate Change (MELCC) implemented the Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program (VLMP) in response to the increasing need of lake health assessment oriented toward eutrophication in the southern parts of the province where human pressures are important. With more than 700 participating lakes, the VLMP is a successful extensive monitoring program involving lake associations, scientific partners and local stakeholders. Already in its 15th year, a lot has been accomplished in developing monitoring and management tools, volunteer formation and certification and, finally, results reporting suited to our specific socio-economic and operational constraints. But the needs seem endless and the consolidation of the network is still a challenging task. In parallel to the VLMP, we are also focusing on the implementation of a more intensive and complete monitoring program on a limited number of lakes, with the aim of using those lakes as long term reference conditions in the context of climate and ecological changes. This will support the interpretation of the extensive VLMP but limited data. An overview of the monitoring program is presented.

Cyanobacteria Monitoring in the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program – The Good, the Bad, and the Exciting
Shane Bradt

  • Abstract

    Cyanobacteria Monitoring in the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program – The Good, the Bad, and the Exciting

    Shane Bradt, James Haney, Jeff Schloss, Bob Craycraft, Sabina Perkins, and Amy Arsenault

    University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire

    Intense interest in cyanobacteria-related issues in lakes in the New England (USA) region resulted in the creation of the New England Cyanobacteria Monitoring Workgroup in 2013. This group, which officially became Cyanobacteria Monitoring Collaborative (CMC) in 2016, brought together stakeholders from across the region to develop a set of methods which could be used across a variety of programs to monitor cyanobacteria in lakes. At the same time the CMC was developing its approaches, the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program (LLMP), a volunteer lake monitoring program run by Cooperative Extension at the University of New Hampshire, became interested in making cyanobacteria monitoring part of the suite of tools available to its participants.

    While the CMC-produced methods showed great promise, and there was clear interest in cyanobacteria monitoring expressed by LLMP participants, a good deal of work was needed by the LLMP staff and leadership to determine the combination of methods and logistics which could meet the needs expressed by lake associations, as well as, be useful to and sustainable by the LLMP. This presentation will discuss the way in which the integration of cyanobacteria monitoring was (and is being) attempted by the LLMP, as well as, detail the good, the bad, and the exciting turns of the road that have emerged over this journey.

Results of Two Advanced P-Removal Pilot Installations for Eutrophication Prevention in Freshwater Systems
Raimonda Buliauskaitė

  • Abstract

    Results of Two Advanced P-Removal Pilot Installations for Eutrophication Prevention in Freshwater Systems

    Raimonda Buliauskaitė1, Miriam Kuiper2, Jeroen Blok1, Prashanth Kumar3, Koos Baas1, and Leon Korving3

    1Aquacare, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Noord Brabant, The Netherlands; 2Wetsus Academy, Leeuwarden, Friesland, The Netherlands; 3Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden, Friesland, The Netherlands

    An increasing threat for freshwater bodies is eutrophication, a condition that has several detrimental socio-economic consequences. Its main cause is phosphorus (P) pollution from agricultural run-off and sewage discharge. Total phosphorus (TP), present as particulate P (pP) and soluble P (oP), can cause eutrophication already at very low concentration of 0.010 mg/L. The present work shows the results of a real-life application of two P-removal systems employed for 3 months in an eutrophicated marsh water in Canada, for the George Barley Water Prize. The two systems, one of Aquacare and one of Wetsus, treated high volumes of water (up to 32 m3/day) at low temperatures, with oP and pP concentrations of 0.177 mg/L and 0.220 mg/L respectively. Both installations consisted of an advanced filtration stage for pP removal, which in the case of Wetsus pilot was combined with a flocculation step. Each pP removal stage was followed by two different iron oxide based adsorbent systems for oP adsorption. The adsorbents could be regenerated allowing for adsorbent reuse and P recovery as raw material for fertilizer. This considerably decreased operational costs. The total oP and pP removal were 97% and 78% for Aquacare, and 92% and 70% for Wetsus, respectively. Higher water temperatures and lower flow rates would further enhance these performances. The results from this study show the potential and bottlenecks of achieving ultra-low P removal in realistic conditions. Future focus will be on improving the advanced filtration systems and adsorbent properties, like kinetics, capacity and selectivity towards oP.

Mecklenburg County’s Approach to Bacteria Sampling in Multiple Use Reservoirs
Caroline Burgett

  • Abstract

    Mecklenburg County’s Approach to Bacteria Sampling in Multiple Use Reservoirs

    Caroline Burgett and Dave Ferguson

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Storm Water Services, Charlotte, North Carolina

    In a reactionary, media frenzied world, how do managers balance reality and overall human health risks with headlines that invoke images of our reservoirs as sewage filled cesspools? Mecklenburg County, North Carolina has a long-term lake monitoring program that implements a sampling routine that hopes to balance this risk strategically. Furthermore, with the addition of Ramsey Creek Beach – Mecklenburg County’s only public swim access, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Storm Water Services partners with Mecklenburg County Park and Recreation to provide a third party, twice weekly sampling routine to assess bacteria levels in the swim area. Finally, Storm Water Services partners with the Mecklenburg County Health Department and the municipal water/sewer service, Charlotte Water, to issue reactionary, precautionary “No Swim Advisories” and implements bacteria sampling protocols after known sanitary sewer discharges with immediate potential to reach reservoir shorelines within our jurisdiction. We address these partnerships, our monitoring data, and managing these threats in the urban complex.

The Starry Stonewort Collaborative for the Great Lakes Basin
David Carr

  • Abstract

    The Starry Stonewort Collaborative for the Great Lakes Basin

    David Carr, Hilary Mosher, and Lisa Cleckner

    Finger Lakes Institute at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York

    Starry Stonewort (SSW, Nitellopsis obtusa) is an aquatic invasive macroalgae from Eurasia that closely resembles a vascular plant. It invades lakes, ponds, and slow-moving water bodies where it attaches to the sediment using rhizoids and grows to 2m (Kipp et al. 2017).

    Left unchecked the SSW will cause harm to natural environmental systems and inhibit use of waterways, which can potentially result in economic impacts.

    The Collaborative will enhance the capacity of experts, resource managers and local stakeholders to address starry stonewort infestations.

    A key component of the project is a network of 23 scientists, stakeholders and resource managers and 8 Expert Panelists from across the Great Lakes basin who will help with outreach, resource exchange and project facilitation.

    Collaborator and panelist work will be applied to three focus areas:

      • Ecology – sharing of ongoing field work and laboratory research for better understanding of Nitellopsis obtusa characteristics and life cycles
      • Outreach – providing insights into the best outreach and education strategies for community involvement in SSW identification and reporting
      • Control – assisting in gathering and sharing best management practices and techniques from all areas of the GLB

    Expected outcomes include:

      • engagement and training target of 1000 community level volunteers across the GLB
      • development of a dedicated SSW website and online library
      • creation and dissemination of BMPs for infestations of SSW throughout the GLB
      • development and distribution of factsheets describing SSW and its control
      • creation and implementation of prevention strategies
      • rapid assessment and response plans

Paleolimnological Reconstruction of Harmful Algal Bloom Trends in Texas Reservoirs
Lane Allen

  • Abstract

    Paleolimnological Reconstruction of Harmful Algal Bloom Trends in Texas Reservoirs

    Lane Allen1, Victoria Chraibi1, Jeff Brady2, Janice Speshock1, and Ryan Morgan3

    1Department of Biological Sciences, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; 2Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Stephenville, Texas; 3Department of Geoscience, Chemistry and Physics, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas

    Most Texas reservoirs are younger than 150 years and have scant records related to their ecology. While HABs are being reported more frequently, it is unclear how long this trend has been developing in Texas as well as unclear as to the fundamental mechanisms causing the trend. This study employed paleolimnological methods to retrieve sediment cores from three reservoirs in Texas, two of which have had recently reported harmful algal blooms caused either by cyanobacteria or Prymnesium parvum. Sediment was dated with a combination of Cs-137 radioisotopes, fire charcoal records, and sedimentation rate records maintained by the state. DNA stored in the sediment was analyzed to identify the presence of cyanobacteria and P. parvum and approximate their abundance over time. In areas where peak abundance was observed, further genetic analysis for algal toxins identified whether or not those blooms became harmful. To identify biotic and abiotic factors that may result in HAB events, diatom subfossil assemblages were used to infer environmental conditions such as nutrient status and lake level. Sediment was characterized by XRF and XRD to identify sediment sources and infer environmental chemistry. Understanding past trends aid in creating models to predict HABs for lake management.

Evolution of Plankton Community Structure Following a Large Alum Treatment: A Case Study From East Pond (Maine)
Charlie Cobb

  • Abstract

    Evolution of Plankton Community Structure Following a Large Alum Treatment: A Case Study From East Pond (Maine)

    Charlie Cobb1, Michaela Oberkfell1, Danielle Wain2, Rachel Hovel3, Linda Bacon4, and Whitney King1

    1Colby College, Waterville, Maine; 27 Lakes Alliance, Belgrade Lakes, Maine; 3University of Maine, Farmington, Maine; 4Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Augusta, Maine

    In 2018, a large alum treatment (260 ha of sediment treated at 45 g/m2) was conducted on East Pond (Smithfield, Maine). East Pond is a 700-ha lake with a maximum depth of 7 m. Phosphorus load analysis indicated that 50% of the phosphorus was from internal loading, thus an alum treatment was determined to be the best course of action. Regular algae samples were taken before, during, and after the alum treatment and analysed using a FlowCam down to genus level. Immediately following the treatment, the total algal biovolume dropped by a factor of 10. In August, when East Pond typically experienced large cyanobacterial blooms, the biovolume of blue-green algae decreased by a factor of 50 compared with 2017. In 2019, we will continue to monitor the phytoplankton community on a weekly basis using the FlowCam to determine how the summer phytoplankton progression has been altered. Because water clarity has significantly improved such that light now penetrates to the bottom likely altering composition of the phytoplankton community, we will also be monitoring the zooplankton community to document trophic cascade effects which has implications for lower trophic levels (phytoplankton) and higher trophic levels (fish). These changes will be compared to the plankton community before the alum treatment and during an earlier biomanipulation experiment on East Pond.

Better Lake Than Never: 14 Years of NPS Success Stories in Lake Restoration
Cyd Curtis

  • Abstract

    Better Lake Than Never: 13 Years of NPS Success Stories in Lake Restoration

    Cyd Curtis

    US Environmental Protection Agency Nonpoint Source Program, Washington, District of Columbia

    Nonpoint source pollution success stories highlight water bodies identified by states as being primarily nonpoint source-impaired and having achieved documented water quality improvements. These stories are a short summary of the innovative approaches behind each water quality improvement. There are over 80 success stories that include water quality improvements in lakes. This presentation will discuss findings from analyses of the many parameters collected as a part of each success story. This will include an evaluation of pollutants, timeframes from listing to delisting, suites of management/restoration practices on the land and in-lake, as well partners and funding.

Lake Eden and Lake Elmore Watershed Assessments
Peter Danforth

  • Abstract

    Lake Eden and Lake Elmore Watershed Assessments

    Peter Danforth

    Lamoille County Conservation District, Morrisville, Vermont

    Lamoille County Conservation District was recently awarded two grants to assess the Lake Elmore and Lake Eden watersheds. Work has begun on both assessments to address potential sediment and nutrient loading into the lakes as well as any other ecological impacts that may or may not be occurring. The methodology of these assessments is wholistic in nature as they include input from all stakeholders and partners. Fitzgerald Environmental Associates LLC is overseeing the stormwater master plan for the basin and is taking input from partners through stream walks, road erosion inventories, forest and agricultural activities and shoreline assessments. Any previous water monitoring activities and/or partner database work such as culvert inventories is also taken into consideration. Concurrently some lakeshore owners are taking part in the Lakewise program to protect their shorelines through Best Management Practices and receive Lakewise certifications.

    This multi-layered approach to assess the lakes conditions involves all stakeholders to create a sense of community in the decision-making process that leads to the implementation of projects. Through these assessments Fitzgerald Environmental Associates LLC will create approximately 30 one-page opportunity summary sheets. These opportunities are then prioritized based on costs and benefits through stakeholder input. From these inputs 5 projects are brought to 30% design for implementation.

D.O.D. – The Dynamics of Dredging
Jerry Davis

  • Abstract

    D.O.D. – The Dynamics of Dredging

    Jerry Davis

    Aquacleaner Environmental, Buffalo New York

    When one first hears the word “Dredging” many cringe, believing it’s a nasty eight letter word, due in part to the perceived stigma that some associate with the process. In addition, people anguish having to navigate the various governmental agencies they’ll have to work with, just to see a project through to fruition.

    Initially conceived to facilitate the deepening of waterways for commercial & recreational boating, its benefits have evolved to include the suppression of IAS & the reclamation of shorelines.

    On the administrative side, there is a vast amount of negativity and nervousness associated with obtaining a dredging permit from the appropriate jurisdictional agencies because the information they require is often viewed as tenuous and confusing. Some in the scientific community have concerns relative to this activity due in part to the types of disruption both in the water and upland they envision.

    This presentation will discuss the dynamics of dredging including:

      • Photos, Videos & Lecture
      • Historical evolution
      • Descriptions of the various types of equipment
      • The How’s and Why’s of dredge project
      • Understanding & navigating the Permit Process
      • Peaceful coexistence with Marine Ecosystem

Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera): A Cautionary Tale–Found Overwintering in Rhode Island, Should New England Be Concerned?
Katie DeGoosh-DiMarzio

  • Abstract

    Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera): A Cautionary Tale–Found Overwintering in Rhode Island, Should New England Be Concerned?

    Katie DeGoosh-DiMarzio

    Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Providence, Rhode Island

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) was observed in a suburban pond located in Cranston, Rhode Island in July 2018. This is the first incidence that the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management has documented this plant in a lake or pond in Rhode Island. Sacred lotus is typically an ornamental water garden plant and is currently being sold at least at one local nursery and featured in water gardens at a local, historic arboretum. Currently, no New England state lists Nelumbo nucifera on their list of prohibited plants, and it is not currently listed as occurring in New England in the USDA NRCS Plants database nor on GoBotany (New England Wild Flower Society). However, personal communications have revealed it is also being managed at a lake near Worcester, MA. Review of aerial photos taken over the past few years demonstrate it is overwintering well, and the patch has expanded over a significant portion of the pond. The public, professional photographers, and local yoga studios have taken many pictures of the alluring blossoms to post on social media. Given the popular appeal of its attractive flowers, but extremely large leaves with aggressive growth rate potential and overwintering success in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, it should be considered as a candidate for risk assessment and possible listing in state regulations to prohibit further sale.

Filtrating Storm Water Runoff Through Bioengineered Living Shorelines
Brian Fischer

  • Abstract

    Filtrating Storm Water Runoff Through Bioengineered Living Shorelines

    Brian Fischer

    SOX Erosion Solutions, Boca Raton, Florida

    Shoreline erosion is the major contributor to watershed sediment loss, enabling precipitation events to transport nutrients (N & P) into lakes, canal systems storm water ponds and fragile estuarine ecosystems contributing to eutrophication. As a direct consequence, eroding shorelines decimate littoral zone habitat and deplete valuable stabilizing soil for buffer vegetation. Eroded shorelines increase the infestation of invasive plants, destabilizing productive ecosystems. Economically speaking, shoreline erosion significantly lowers property values adjacent to water bodies. Stormwater runoff is one of the highest contributors to shoreline erosion but is often neglected due to overstretched municipal budgets. Implementing environmentally sound practices of vegetative buffering and habitat restoration are of increasing importance to policymakers, water managers and consulting engineers. A relatively recent holistic approach to stabilizing shorelines is gaining international momentum utilizing a patented bioengineered fiber material distributed by SOX Erosion Solutions of Boca Raton, Florida. This high strength fabric uses densely knitted permeable mesh proven to last decades. The “SOX” approach has been shown to withstand hurricane-force wave intensity, northern lake ice fracturing and intense tidal friction. As a result, within months after a SOX installation, native plants flourish and grow within the integrated fabric improving nutrient buffering, reducing soil loss and increasing wildlife habitat. Municipalities and states are increasingly turning to living shorelines approaches as opposed to expensive cement walls, “rip-rap” or installing impermeable synthetic tubing. The SOX fabric approach has been shown to be the most conducive ecological method to achieve living shoreline goals and is the best cost-effective method on the market. This presentation will focus specifically on stormwater control examples with documented case studies from recent satisfied clients.

Indirect Effects of Freshwater Salinization on Drinking Water Quality
Isabelle Fournier

  • Abstract

    Indirect Effects of Freshwater Salinization on Drinking Water Quality

    Isabelle R.B. Fournier1,2, Danielle Greco3 and Shelley Arnott3

    1Department of Biology, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre for northern studies (CEN), Quebec, Quebec, Canada; 3Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

    In United States, ≈20 million tons of sodium chloride are spread on roads during winter to ensure driver safety. In Canada, it is ≈5 million. This salt leaks into surface waters, resulting in their salinization. This could compromise access to drinking water by exceeding the threshold values for chloride, or via a change in species composition of planktonic communities due to chloride tolerance differences. For instance, a shift of dominance to cyanobacteria may promote toxin production and a shift to dinoflagellates may result in water having unpleasant taste and odor. Numerous studies compared planktonic communities between fresh and marine ecosystems, but few address the impacts of moderate salt increase. To predict changes that may occur due to freshwater salinization, the summer planktonic community of Long Lake (Ontario, Canada) was exposed to chloride (0.4 to 1500 mg/L) for 6 weeks in 1570 L outdoor mesocosms, in combination, or not, with higher nutrient levels. With increasing salinity, there was a shift in dominance from diatoms to filamentous cyanobacteria and the dinoflagellate Peridinium in the 200–600 mg/L range. At the higher nutrient level, this shift occurs at lower salinity. In addition to the drinking water quality problems that cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates may promote, they also have a poor nutritional value that may affect higher trophic levels. Across North America, there is only a small proportion of water bodies where chloride concentration is high enough to induce this shift, but as salinity increases, water quality and energy transfer will likely deteriorate.

Evaluation of Iron-Based Phosphate Sorbents
Holly Frederick

  • Abstract

    Evaluation of Iron-Based Phosphate Sorbents

    Holly Frederick, Zarlasht Abubakr, Abraham King, Michaela Fehn, Nicole Hart, and Jacob Schall

    Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

    Iron-based sorbents were evaluated for their capacity for phosphate removal. The sorbents included ferroxysorb, a solid precipitate from an acid mine drainage treatment site in Southeast Pennsylvania and several chitosan-based iron mixtures. The sorbents were evaluated in the laboratory and water quality was monitored for pH, iron concentration, phosphate concentration as well as other anions released from the sorbent. Isotherms were developed for the sorbents. The chitosan-based sorbents with ferrous iron and aluminum in the synthesis protocol were most effective at phosphate removal. Initial laboratory-based test demonstrated that chitosan-iron compounds were able to remove 7 mg PO43- per gram of sorbent and ferroxysorb was able to remove 0.485 mg PO43- per gram. Subsequent laboratory tests with lake water revealed similar removal capacity. It was observed that ferroxysorb released sulfate into the system over time to reach a level of 20 mg/L, and MBOP released chloride into the water to reach a concentration of 200 mg/L. Preliminary sorption experiments in the lake revealed that MBOP did remove phosphate from a depth of 1 m, 5.5 m and 6.25 m depths in the lake. The evaluation was made by quantifying the level of phosphate desorbed from the used sorbent compared with the phosphate desorbed from unreacted sorbent. Initial tests indicate that desorption of phosphate and reuse of the sorbents is possible.

Monitoring Trends in the Nearshore and Profundal Benthic Invertebrate Communities of Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada) Coinciding With a Shift From Zebra to Quagga Mussels
Brian Ginn

  • Abstract

    Monitoring Trends in the Nearshore and Profundal Benthic Invertebrate Communities of Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada) Coinciding With a Shift From Zebra to Quagga Mussels

    Brian Ginn

    Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada

    Starting in 2005, and continuing annually 2008–2017, we have undertaken surveys of the benthic community of Lake Simcoe. Benthos of the nearshore (2–20 m water depth) and profundal (> 20 m depth) zones are dominated by chironomids, oligochaetes, and invasive dreissenid mussels. The most significant species change recorded during the period of study has been the decline of the zebra mussel population ~2010, and their replacement by quagga mussels. Although zebra mussels were mostly restricted to water depths < 20 m, likely due to deeper substrates being filter-clogging soft mud and silt, quagga mussels have expanded into the profundal zone since 2012, altering the composition and density of deepwater benthos, and impacting water treatment infrastructure placed deep to avoid zebra mussel fouling. Since 2005, the benthic community has seen declines in filter feeding taxa (e.g., sphaeriid bivalves and some oligochaete taxa) at sites where dreissenids are present, and a 4–5× increase in the density of deposit feeder taxa. Current investigations of benthic community changes, particularly in the profundal zone, are targeting changes to energy and nutrient cycling (e.g., benthification of resources by dreissenids), possible impacts to the fish community, and implications to lake management strategies.

Salinity Stratification on Urban Stormwater Management Ponds: Consequences of Winter De-icing Salt Use on Pond Performance and Applying a Modified Schmidt Stability Model
Brian Ginn

  • Abstract

    Salinity Stratification on Urban Stormwater Management Ponds: Consequences of Winter De-icing Salt Use on Pond Performance and Applying a Modified Schmidt Stability Model

    Brian Ginn, Chandler Eves, and David Lembcke

    Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada

    Stormwater management ponds are used in many urban areas to control the quantity and quality of run-off from impervious surfaces. Although the efficacy of these ponds has been questioned in recent years, leading to a shift toward green infrastructure, many municipalities have legacy ponds that may not be functioning due to poor design, poor maintenance, or not being built to specifications. Additionally, in Ontario, and other “snowbelt” locations, the use of winter de-icing salt may further impair pond functioning. A survey of 92 ponds in the Lake Simcoe watershed (Ontario) identified conductivity, salt stratification of the water column, and nutrients as significant (~85% of variance) environmental drivers. There were marked differences between ponds with residential catchments and commercial / institutional catchments. In a detailed study of three ponds (two commercial, one residential), CTD and oxygen loggers were deployed for extended periods (8–12 months) to record top vs bottom conditions at 15-minute intervals. These results showed salt stratification of the water column, internal release of sediment-bound phosphorus, and meromictic-like anoxic bottom waters, which often had conductivity and chloride concentrations close to, or exceeding, seawater. This salt stratification is persistent, often lasting into autumn, resistant to mixing, and differs with annual climate (e.g., hot and dry vs cooler and wetter). Highly saline, anoxic bottom waters are a particular concern in “bottom-draw” ponds (intended to prevent release of warm water to coldwater fish habitats), especially when these waters are discharged to tributaries during critical developmental and reproductive life stages of biota.

Investigating Nearshore Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Finger Lakes, New York
John Halfman

  • Abstract

    Investigating Nearshore Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Finger Lakes, New York

    John Halfman1, Trevor Massey2, Lisa Cleckner2, Dana Hall3, Peter Rogers3, William Roege4, Dan Corbett4, and Frank DiOrio4

    1Department of Environmental Studies/Geoscience, Hobart & William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York; 2Finger Lakes Institute, Hobart & William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York; 3Owasco Watershed Lake Association, Auburn, New York; 4Seneca Lake Pure Waters Association, Geneva, New York

    Cyanobacteria (BGA) have increasingly influenced waterbodies throughout the globe. By 2017, all eleven Finger Lakes (FLs) in central and western New York have experienced BGA blooms, even though ten FLs are oligotrophic/mesotrophic (low nutrient) systems. Here, we present shoreline data from Owasco and Seneca Lakes to investigate potential triggers for shoreline BGA blooms, projects in close collaboration with local watershed groups.

    In 2018, weekly cell phone photographs and water samples for algal and nutrient concentrations, plankton assemblages, water temperature and basic meteorological data were collected from 11 nearshore locations around Owasco Lake during the August through September bloom season to investigate the occurrence of BGA blooms. The data indicated that the shoreline hugging blooms are transitory in both space and time, and typically appeared just after a dip in surface water temperature and a major wind/rain event, to appear during the subsequent calm and sunny day. The weekly sampling missed a number of blooms, however.

    We will present our preliminary 2019 findings as well. The pending 2019 study improves on the sample design by deploying an automated camera (Brinno TLC200), a temperature logger (HOBO Tidbit MX 400), and a weather station (Ambient WS-1002 Weather Station) at each site in Owasco and Seneca Lakes, during the bloom season. The instrumentation permits 10 to 30-minute sample periods that strive to detect transitory nearshore events. This data will be compared to offshore, mid-lake, meteorological and water quality monitoring buoys. The addition of Seneca Lake investigates the lake-to-lake uniformity of the BGA precursor events.

Monitoring and Calibration of a Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Lake Arrowhead, California, Prior to Initiating Indirect Potable Reuse Through Surface Water Augmentation
Imad Hannoun

  • Abstract

    Monitoring and Calibration of a Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Lake Arrowhead, California, Prior to Initiating Indirect Potable Reuse Through Surface Water Augmentation

    Ali Saber1, David E. James1, Imad Hannoun2, Tracy Vermeyen3, Meghan Thiemann4, and Jeffery Pasek5

    1Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada; 2Water Quality Solutions, McGaheysville, Virginia; 3US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado; 4US Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder City, Nevada; 5City of San Diego, San Diego, California

    A multi-year monitoring and modeling effort was conducted to evaluate lake mixing and transport processes prior to planning for surface water augmentation at Lake Arrowhead, California, a warm climate high-altitude lake. Data from a wide range of instrumentation including, multiparameter water quality profiles, four weather stations, two acoustic Doppler profilers, six Lagrangian drifters, and two thermistor strings, combined with utility water withdrawals and high-resolution bathymetry were used to calibrate the hydrodynamic model. If approved, an extensively researched non-toxic dye tracer will be used to validate the model.

    Findings to support model calibration include: Lake level varied 3.2 meters during the study period. Water inflows occurred primarily during winter storms. Mixing and transport were primarily wind driven. Small differences in water quality indicators were found across the lake’s four major bays. Lake stratification began in late February, peaked in July and ended with December overturn. Hypolimnetic hypoxia below 4 mg/L occurred during stratification. Reoxygenation rapidly occurred following turnover. Mountainous terrain generated a spatially variable wind field, with slower southwesterly prevailing wind speeds near the south shore and higher southerly and southeasterly wind speeds on the north shore.  The calibrated AEM3D hydrodynamic model, simulating one year on a 30 × 30 × 0.5 meter grid, successfully reproduced the lake’s energy and water balances and its temperature profiles. Correlations of water column velocity profiles and prevailing winds were investigated and subsequently used to estimate water column mixing intensity. ADP and Lagrangian drifter data were used to validate velocity profiles.

Elevating Community Based Water Monitoring in Canada
Kat Hartwig

  • Abstract

    Elevating Community Based Water Monitoring in Canada

    Kat Hartwig

    Living Lakes Canada, Brisco, British Columbia, Canada

    As a powerful means of achieving shared governance, sustainability objectives and climate adaptation, Community Based Water Monitoring (CBWM) is gaining momentum across Canada. To realize the full potential of this movement there is a need for strategic investment, collaboration and leadership across sectors, watersheds, and jurisdictional boundaries. This must include active integration of CBWM data into policy and decision-making. A national Roundtable discussion was convened by The Gordon Foundation, Living Lakes Canada and WWF-Canada, with the aim to support a collaborative dialogue around how the federal government can meaningfully and effectively engage with and support CBWM in Canada, with the key objective to identify actionable steps the federal government can take to show leadership and support in advancing community-based monitoring of freshwater ecosystems in Canada.

    This discussion paper provides a brief overview of key areas where opportunities exist for the federal government to support CBWM. Recommendations included were based on the input of roundtable participants. The discussion paper and final recommendations have been divided into the following key thematic areas of focus: 1) Capacity building, 2) Effective monitoring, 3) Regional and national collaboration, 4) Data management, 5) Data to inform decision making, and 6) Sustainable funding and national case studies include the building of regional open source data hubs and monitoring collaboratives and the testing and applying a national water monitoring protocol to assess stream health via benthic invertebrates using new eDNA sequencing.

Libraries Love Lakes: A Project to Engage Library Visitors During Lakes Appreciation Month
Nadia Harvieux

  • Abstract

    Libraries Love Lakes: A Project to Engage Library Visitors During Lakes Appreciation Month

    Nadia Harvieux1, Olenka Duncan2, Teresa Sauer3, and Jen Klug3

    1Finger Lakes Institute, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York; 2Wood Library Teen Advisory Board, Canandaigua, New York; 3Biology Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, Connecticut

    “Libraries Love Lakes” is a project of NE GLEON and the Finger Lakes Institute designed to expose library patrons to the value of lakes in their lives. NE GLEON is a group of lake scientists from Northeastern North America who are affiliated with the Global Lakes Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). The Finger Lakes Institute at Hobart and William Smith Colleges focuses on research, education and outreach of water quality issues related to the Finger Lakes and their watersheds. “Libraries Love Lakes” provides programming to local libraries during Lakes Appreciation Month – a NALMS sponsored awareness campaign which promotes the importance of lakes. Libraries offer a chance to engage a wide variety of people who may have little knowledge of the ecosystem services provided by lakes. During pilot programing in 2019, we worked with the teen advisory board and the children’s librarian at the Wood Library to reach several target audiences. K-3 children were exposed to the value of lakes in a traditional story-time format and a display of age-appropriate lake books available for check-out. Adults accompanying the children were given a flyer describing the project. All library visitors were invited to respond to the prompt “Why we love lakes!” by posting on a centrally located community display. Outcomes of the pilot project were shared using the hashtag #librarieslovelakes as part of the Lakes Appreciation Month social media campaign. Other libraries have expressed interest in 2020 and we plan to expand the program throughout the NE GLEON and GLEON communities.

Selective Management of Exotic Watermilfoils and Other North American Invasive Aquatic Plants With ProcellaCOR®, a Novel, Reduced-Risk Aquatic Herbicide
Mark Heilman

  • Abstract

    Selective Management of Exotic Watermilfoils and Other North American Invasive Aquatic Plants With ProcellaCOR®, a Novel, Reduced-Risk Aquatic Herbicide

    Mark A. Heilman1, Kurt Getsinger2, Amy Smagula3, Jens Beets4, JT Gravelie1, and David Petty5

    1SePRO, Carmel, Indiana; 2US Engineer Research and Development Center – Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Vicksburg, Mississippi; 3New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, New Hampshire; 4North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; 5NDR Research, Plainfield, Indiana

    In early 2018, the US Environmental Protection Agency approved the reduced-risk aquatic herbicide ProcellaCOR® (a.i. florpyrauxifen-benzyl). ProcellaCOR has excellent activity on a variety of North American (NA) aquatic invasive plants including Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and hybrid Eurasian accessions. The new arylpicolinate herbicide reduces use rates by several orders of magnitude versus older spot herbicide strategies for invasive watermilfoil management without restrictions on water use for drinking, swimming, and fishing. Efforts are also underway to register the new herbicide for use in Canada. Research studies prior to registration and initial use since its US approval have confirmed excellent, short-exposure (as little as 6 – 12 hours) activity on invasive watermilfoils with little or no impact to most common NA native aquatic plant species such as pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.), naiads (Najas spp.), tapegrass (Vallisneria americana), and bulrush (Schoenoplectus spp.). In this paper, results from multiple field projects with ProcellaCOR for invasive watermilfoil management will be reviewed including pre- and post-treatment quantitative point-intercept vegetation surveys and herbicide dissipation monitoring. Additional information on ProcellaCOR selective activity on other NA invasive plants such as water soldier (Stratiotes aloides) and yellow floating heart (Nymphoides peltata) will also be highlighted.

Successful Eradication of Monoecious Hydrilla From a Northern Indiana Lake
Mark Heilman

  • Abstract

    Successful Eradication of Monoecious Hydrilla From a Northern Indiana Lake

    Mark A. Heilman1, Eric D. Fischer2, Doug Keller2, JT Gravelie3, Nathan Long4, David Keister5, and Tyler J. Koschnick1

    1SePRO, Carmel, Indiana; 2Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana; 3SePRO, Traverse City, Michigan; 4Aquatic Control, Inc., Seymour, Indiana; 5Aquatic Weed Control, Inc., Goshen, Indiana

    In August 2006, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) discovered the monoecious biotype of hydrilla in Lake Manitou, a 327-ha lake located in northcentral Indiana. In response to this first discovery of hydrilla in the Midwest US, IDNR implemented rapid response actions followed by an eradication program utilizing season-long application strategies of the systemic herbicide fluridone (Sonar®). Point-intercept rake surveys in the late spring and mid-summer of each year failed to detect hydrilla after the start of fluridone treatments in 2007. Sediment core sampling documented hydrilla tuber decline from an average of 73 m-2 (732,339 ha-1) in 2007 to undetectable levels by 2011. SCUBA diver surveys were adaptively implemented from 2011 through 2018 to detect trace hydrilla with the last detection of hydrilla by diver in 2013. From 2014–2016, fluridone treatments were gradually reduced in scale and intensity to promote native aquatic plant growth while aggressively controlling any trace hydrilla. No management was conducted in 2017 and 2018. Ongoing vegetation assessments and diver reconnaissance failed to detect hydrilla through 2018, the 5th consecutive year without detection. Native plant presence and diversity decreased during the most intensive treatment years (7 native species found in 2005–2006 versus 2–6 from 2007–2013) but increased from 2014–2018 to equal or greater levels (7–12 species) than pre-eradication. The successful selective eradication of hydrilla and recovery of a native-dominant aquatic plant community can inform potential efforts in other US lakes.

Three New and Innovative Tools for Permanently and Sustainably Removing Excess Nutrients/Contaminants and to Control Invasive Plant and Animal Species in Lakes, Ponds and Rivers
Jonathan Higgins

  • Abstract

    Three New and Innovative Tools for Permanently and Sustainably Removing Excess Nutrients/Contaminants and to Control Invasive Plant and Animal Species in Lakes, Ponds and Rivers

    Jonathan Higgins

    Higgins Environmental Associates, Inc., Amesbury, Massachusetts

    Introducing three recently patented, new and innovative technologies to permanently and sustainably remove targeted areas of excess nutrients, harmful algae blooms, contaminants, soft sediments and to aid in the control of invasive plants and animals in lakes, ponds and rivers.

    The most recently patented technology, the “A-Pod,” is used to rapidly capture then permanently remove solids including harmful algae blooms and their often ore-grade concentrations of phosphorus directly from water. It is a readily deployable, floatable or submersible (depending upon the targeted area) apparatus. The A-Pod can also be used to isolate and contain areas of invasive plants or animals for control and to minimize the use of pesticides consistent with Integrated Pest Management procedures. The isolated area formed by the A-Pod can also be used for removal of soft sediments and organic detritus including invasive plant matter and seeds.

    The second technology, the “P-Pod,” is deployed onto the sediment surface where it can be used to extract nutrients/contaminants from the active, upper sediment layer for permanent removal. The upper layer of easily suspended, soft sediments can also be removed using this tool.

    The third technology, the “S-Pod,” is a small foot-print apparatus used to remove targeted areas of soft sediment at lower costs and with minimal disturbance to water bodies or surrounding land areas compared to conventional dredging techniques.

    Field and laboratory testing results will be presented for proof of concept runs documenting the efficiency and application of each of these innovative technologies.

Collaboration vs. Conflict: How Can Lake Management Professionals Navigate Choppy Waters?
Diane Lauritsen

  • Abstract

    Collaboration Versus Conflict: How Can Lake Management Professionals Navigate Choppy Waters?

    Diane Lauritsen

    LIMNOSCIENCES, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    Healthy lakes provide many benefits to the communities that depend on them: their aesthetic appeal increases property valuations, they provide a variety of recreational opportunities, and they also have value as natural ecosystems. But it is often the case that some of the uses can impact ecosystem health—particularly with respect to nutrient enrichment and introduction of invasive species. It is also often the case that much time and energy is devoted to playing the blame game when lake problems arise, which creates a toxic and unproductive atmosphere that can be difficult to diffuse. Lake professionals can benefit by sharing case studies of effective collaboration, so that we have more tools for our lake management toolbox. The example provided here describes the approach used to develop a partnership with a marine dealership so that negative impacts (shoreline erosion, sediment resuspension) related to boat type, size and use in a shallow lake could be minimized. Boat transport related to sales and maintenance also have the potential for spread of invasive species such as the aquatic weed Hydrilla, so productive communications and partnerships such as this one can provide multiple and significant benefits.

Harmful Algal Bloom Literature Searching, Screening, and Piloting of Systematic Review Tools
Sylvia Lee

  • Abstract

    Harmful Algal Bloom Literature Searching, Screening, and Piloting of Systematic Review Tools

    Sylvia Lee1, Katelin Kelly2, Kate Schofield3, Meridith Fry3, and Michael Paul2

    1US Environmental Protection Agency ORISE, Washington, District of Columbia; 2Tetra Tech, Raleigh, North Carolina; 3US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, District of Columbia

    We searched Web of Science and screened the literature on freshwater cyanobacterial blooms and the factors associated with bloom development. We tagged the relevant studies with the variables (e.g., temperature, nutrients, light) related to the response of cyanobacteria (e.g., biomass, growth rate, toxin production). We also compared the efficiency, accuracy, and ease of use of two different literature screening tools: SWIFT-Active Screener (https://www.sciome.com/swift-activescreener/) and DistillerSR (https://www.evidencepartners.com/products/distillersr-systematic-review-software/). We used these efforts to characterize the body of evidence available on cyanobacterial blooms, identify knowledge gaps, and to learn about the pros and cons of machine learning-based tools for literature screening.

Real-Time Monitoring, Modeling and Forecasting: A Case Study of West Lake, Hanoi, Vietnam
Szu-Ting Lee

  • Abstract

    Real-Time Monitoring, Modeling and Forecasting: A Case Study of West Lake, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Szu-Ting Lee1, Tom Mathis1, Kester Scandrett2, and Nghiem Tien Lam2

    1DSI, LLC, Edmonds, Washington; 2DSI, LLC, Hanoi, Vietnam

    The application of real-time monitoring systems in lakes, rivers and other waterways has been a key factor in improving the ability of managers, stakeholders, emergency responders, and everyday citizens to adapt to the changing world around them and respond to significant events more effectively. These real-time systems can be further enhanced by adapting the predictive capabilities of various linked models for atmospheric systems, upland hydrology, and the waterbodies themselves. Such predictive systems have typically been too complex and expensive to operate, despite their value for protecting life and property. The EFDC_Explorer Modeling System has been enhanced to provide a low-cost alternative to such systems, which can implement spatially variable fields to facilitate enhanced linkage with atmospheric and groundwater. A case study for a coupled real-time monitoring and modeling system for West Lake in Hanoi, Vietnam will be discussed. West Lake has experienced numerous water quality and ecological issues related to its largely urban watershed.

Monitoring Change in Lake Water Storage Over Time Through the Use of Satellite Imagery and Citizen Science
Sarina Little

  • Abstract

    Monitoring Change in Lake Water Storage Over Time Through the Use of Satellite Imagery and Citizen Science

    Sarina Little1, Tamlin Pavelsky1, Grant Parkins2, Sarah Yelton2, Sheikh Ghafoor3, and Faisal Hossain4

    1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; 2Institute for the Environment, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; 3Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, Tennessee; 4University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

    Surface water stored in lakes is a key part of the global water cycle and a crucial water resource. Being so complex, lake water storage, especially in endorheic lakes, is very sensitive to changes occurring in the hydrologic balance of the surrounding watershed. Previous studies have documented the effects of change that are already being seen in lakes, but there is a limited understanding of how water storage in small lakes varies on different spatial scales over time. This is due to the ways that lake water level is currently being monitored. Two promising ways to monitor water variations over time in small clusters of lakes are optical satellite imagery time series and measurements by citizen scientists. For this project, we study change in lake water storage over time in clusters of small natural lakes in North Carolina, Washington State, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, through the use of lake level measurements gathered by citizen scientists and lake surface area measurements taken from satellite optical imagery, to calculate over all change in lake water storage based upon a linear hypothesis that assumes that the volume of lake change can be approximated by trapezoidal volume. Additionally, the lake storage change over time calculated for each lake is correlated with each lake in a study region to determine if the lakes are co-varying. If lakes are co-varying, the spatial scales at which this is occurring is determined and the reasons as to why these spatial scales may be important is investigated.

Shoreline Erosion and Increased Anoxia in Lakes in New Hampshire and Maine
Melissa Macheras

  • Abstract

    Shoreline Erosion and Increased Anoxia in Lakes in New Hampshire and Maine

    Melissa Macheras

    Plymouth State University, Plymouth, New Hampshire

    Multiple lakes in northern New Hampshire and western Maine have recently experienced issues with shoreline erosion and deep-water anoxia. As shoreline erosion increases, an influx of organic material is transported into the lake. As it settles to the bottom and begins decomposing, the water in the deeper layers of the lake can become anoxic. Using sediment cores and sedimentology data from 5 lakes in New Hampshire and Maine, Pleasant Lake, Newfound Lake, Kezar Lake, Spofford Lake and Horseshoe Pond, this project aims to determine the cause of this recent shoreline erosion and deep-water anoxia in these lakes. We will be comparing current and past lake management plans to determine if changes in lake management could be contributing to this increase in erosion as well. Over the last 30 years there has been a large increase in recreational boating on the lakes in this region. We hypothesize that this increase in shoreline erosion may be due to an increase in wave-directed energy from recreational boating, resulting in increased turbidity, organic debris in shallow regions and, ultimately, enlarged anoxic zones.

Accumulation and Discharge of Salt From a Constructed Wetland
Mikaela Martiros

  • Abstract

    Accumulation and Discharge of Salt From a Constructed Wetland

    Mikaela Martiros, Julia Gloninger, Rory Kuczek, Erica Walsh, Emily White, and Robyn Smyth

    Environmental and Urban Studies, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York

    Constructed wetlands are increasingly promoted and used to treat urban stormwater runoff. By replicating the elements and functions of natural wetlands, constructed wetlands are designed to collect, slow down, and improve the quality of urban stormwater while providing co-benefits like carbon sequestration and habitat not provided by traditional stormwater infrastructure. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of a small (< 0.1 ha) stormwater treatment wetland built in 2014 on Bard College’s campus in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. We find that turbidity levels are decreased from inlet to outlet, but conductivity often increases. We show that the wetland has, over nearly 5 years of operation, accumulated a considerable amount of road salt such that median conductivity levels throughout the system exceed 1000 µS/cm year-round. We found high conductivities (400–800 µS/cm) exiting the system in the fall of 2018, prior to the winter salting season. Chloride concentrations measured during spring amphibian breeding season exceeded 200 mg/L, levels that may have negative impacts on some species. Freshwater salinization is an issue of increasing concern in northern latitudes where road salt is routinely and liberally applied as part of winter road maintenance. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands will require active maintenance (pumping) if they are to be used as a road salt mitigation strategy.

A Guide to Managing Water Chestnut and Surveying for High Priority Invasives Across the Finger Lakes Region of New York State
Hilary Mosher

  • Abstract

    A Guide to Managing Water Chestnut and Surveying for High Priority Invasives Across the Finger Lakes Region of New York State

    Hilary Mosher, Kathryn Des Jardin, and Lisa B. Cleckner

    Finger Lakes Institute at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans) is a highly prolific aquatic invasive species known to impair waterways in New York State. The plant can overtake a waterbody within a few years due to its rapid growth whereby 1 ac may yield 100 ac the following year.

    The Finger Lakes Institute (FLI) at Hobart and William Smith Colleges (HWS) and Finger Lakes Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management (Finger Lakes PRISM) began managing water chestnut in the Finger Lakes starting in 2014. In 2016, FLI was awarded an USEPA Great Lakes Restoration Initiative control grant to manage 12 sites selected due to their ecological significance as an Area of Concern (AOC), Important Bird Area (IBA), or a Significant Community.

    During this project period, over 16,600 acres of waterways were surveyed for high priority invasives and satellite populations of water chestnut. Sites were surveyed within 1 mi of a known infestation using the rake toss method (Madsen 1999) to determine density of and total number of plant species present. Diversity, average total density, and frequency of invasive species were calculated.

    Management occurred across 2,500 acres where 71 tons of biomass were removed via handpulls. An estimated 1,932.5 tons were harvested through partner AIS programs. Outreach resulted in 1,199 students; 1,700 homeowners; and 144,650 community members engaged in prevention through workshops, training, and tabling events; over 2,270 volunteer hours; and an adopt-a-shoreline model of surveillance.

    While significant population reductions occurred across sites, continued monitoring and management is warranted to ensure long-term successful management.

Trends in Nutrient Concentrations and Loads of Streams in the Lake Winnipeg Basin
Sharon Reedyk

  • Abstract

    Trends in Nutrient Concentrations and Loads of Streams in the Lake Winnipeg Basin

    Sharon Reedyk1 and Arthur Friesen2

    1Environment and Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Environment and Climate Change Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    The rate of eutrophication in Lake Winnipeg, Canada’s sixth largest lake increased significantly post-1990. Although efforts to reduce nutrient loading to the lake are underway, the lag effect from internal loading on in-lake water quality improvement makes it challenging to illustrate progress. Trend analyses were completed to assess their use in helping to inform programming and policy decisions around the measurement of nutrient reduction progress and targeting of nutrient reduction efforts. Trends were calculated for flow-normalized concentration and load of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) using the Weighted Regressions on Time Discharge and Season model. Sites with the highest likelihoods of increasing trends in flow-normalized TN and TP concentrations and loads, both in the long-term and in the recent 10-year period, were mostly those in the Assiniboine and Red River drainage areas, while sites in the North and South Saskatchewan River basins tended to have either no trend or decreasing trends. Many streams in the Red and Assiniboine River basins had estimated increases in flow-normalized TP and TN flux that were well over 100% for the longer trend periods. There were fewer significant increases in TP and TN concentration and load in the recent 10-year period compared to the longer trend periods. Increasing discharge over the last 20 years appeared to be the main driver for most of the increasing nutrient trends. This suggests that nutrient reduction efforts focused on water management may yield better results than ones focused only on nutrient management.

The Nasty Neighbor Next Door: Assessing Factors That Influence Lake Vulnerability to Zebra Mussel Invasion
Shauna Sadoski

  • Abstract

    The Nasty Neighbor Next Door: Assessing Factors that Influence Lake Vulnerability to Zebra Mussel Invasion

    Shauna Sadoski1,2, Victoria Chraibi1, and Christopher Higgins1

    1Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; 2United States Army Corps of Engineers, Lake Whitney Office, Texas

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) first invaded Texas waterways in 2009; since then, they have infested 15 reservoirs and been detected inconclusively by DNA only in several others. Lake Whitney, a high-conductivity lake used for hydroelectricity, has no recorded established populations of zebra mussels, while its nearby neighbor Lake Belton, a freshwater lake used for drinking water, has had a large population of zebra mussels for several years. This study considers environmental and anthropogenic factors that may determine the vulnerability of Lake Whitney and other lakes in the region to zebra mussel invasion. First, this study is collecting year-round monitoring data of water chemistry to determine the possible influences that salinity, temperature, and mixing determined by controlled water releases may have on zebra mussel habitat suitability. In addition, zebra mussels are being cultured in tanks exposed to varying levels of conductivity to gauge their tolerance. Finally, surveys of recreational users on the lakes are being collected to determine visitation patterns and the extent to which visitors follow “clean, drain, dry” guidelines. The data produced by these three approaches are being used to model the patterns of boat transfer between lakes to identify lakes in the region at greatest risk for zebra mussel invasion.

Nutrient Removal in a Woodchip Bioreactor Bed Receiving Silage Bunker Runoff
Jillian Sarazen

  • Abstract

    Nutrient Removal in a Woodchip Bioreactor Bed Receiving Silage Bunker Runoff

    Jillian Sarazen1, Stephanie Hurley1, and Joshua Faulkner2

    1Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont; 2UVM Extension Center for Sustainable Agriculture, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

    Storm-driven runoff from agricultural production areas contributes to the pollution and degradation of downstream water bodies. This runoff carries sediments, pathogens, and nutrients; specifically, nitrogen and phosphorus. Many dairy farms store livestock feed in silage bunkers, where anaerobic fermentation preserves the quality of the plant material. Liquid silage leachate is a natural biproduct of this process and is a very potent wastewater due excessive nutrient content, high biochemical oxygen demand, and low pH. Leachate production and storm-driven runoff from these areas can be difficult to accurately predict and control. Therefore, there is a need for low-maintenance management practices to improve runoff quality before it is released into surrounding soils and surface waters. Woodchip bioreactors are a promising edge-of-field treatment technology designed to create an anaerobic environment and provide a carbon source for nitrate removal through heterotopic denitrification. In 2017, operation of a woodchip bioreactor bed began at the University of Vermont Paul R. Miller Research Complex, located in the Lake Champlain Drainage Basin. The system consists of a sequence of three pre-treatment tanks for particle settling and aeration and flow through a woodchip bioreactor bed. This research evaluates this runoff treatment system for its effectiveness in the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from silage runoff during storm events. Throughout the summer and fall of 2018 and 2019, water samples were taken at four locations along the runoff flow path. Overall, the system has been effective in removing total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads from runoff.

Telling the Story of Indiana Lake Water Quality With Interactive Web-Based Mapping and Data Visualization
Cory Sauve

  • Abstract

    Telling the Story of Indiana Lake Water Quality With Interactive Web-Based Mapping and Data Visualization

    Cory Sauve

    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana

    Lake water quality monitoring programs have historically communicated results through traditional methods like written reports and presentations. While these methods may effectively communicate information to a targeted group, they often fail to reach all stakeholders interested in lake water quality. Recent advancements in web-based and open source technologies provide programs with the ability to not only reach a larger group of stakeholders, but to allow for individuals to view data in an interactive and customizable way.

    The Indiana Clean Lakes Program is a multifaceted water monitoring and educational program incorporating both annual monitoring and citizen science to assess Indiana lake water quality. The Indiana Clean Lakes Program has sampled over 2000 lakes since 1989 through annual monitoring, and currently includes over 80 volunteer lake monitors. This talk will illustrate how the program has used Esri Story Maps and Shiny from R Studio to build interactive web-based maps and visualizations displaying these data to stakeholders across Indiana.

Assessing the Great Lakes
Nancy Stadler-Salt

  • Abstract

    Assessing the Great Lakes

    Nancy Stadler-Salt1, Stacey Cherwaty-Pergentile1, and Todd Nettesheim2

    1Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada; 2US Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, Illinois

    Environment and Climate Change Canada and United States Environmental Protection Agency work together to assess the conditions of the waters of the Great Lakes, the largest lakes in North America and an important and globally significant shared binational resource. Getting consensus on the assessments is quite a feat as it involves 2 federal governments, 1 province, 8 states, multiple binational, watershed, academic and non-governmental organizations and institutions. Working with over 200 scientists and subject-matter experts representing over 30 different agencies and organizations, 45 sub-indicator reports are prepared. This information is synthesized into 9 high-level indicators, covering the following issues: nutrients and algae, toxic chemicals, habitat and species, invasive species, groundwater, watershed impacts and climate change, drinking water, beaches, and fish consumption. The information is further synthesized into an overall assessment for the Great Lakes. The latest assessment was released in June 2019 with the Great Lakes ecosystem being assessed as (spoiler-alert) Fair and Unchanging. In addition to reporting on the Great Lakes as a whole, the information can also be used to assess each individual Great Lake. The presentation will explain the who, what, why, how and when of assessing the Great Lakes ecosystem and how the assessment information is made available.

Lake Volume Calculations in ArcMap and R: Methods for a Believable Result From “Best Available” Data
Douglas Suitor

  • Abstract

    Lake Volume Calculations in ArcMap and R: Methods for a Believable Result From “Best Available” Data

    Douglas Suitor

    Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Augusta, Maine

    Volume calculations are important, accurate measurements of lake and pond parameters including littoral area, anoxic volume, and total volume are essential for successful lake management. Lake volume calculations may be derived using a variety of methods including GIS software, extrapolations from surrounding elevations, and planimetered contour measurements. A comparison of volumes by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection found that these methods resulted in volumes with differences that ranged from 14% to 82% for a waterbody. This presentation will recommend a method for calculating volume with results for a hypothetical waterbody of known volume. It will describe expected results from the use of “best available” depth and area data and recommend a workflow using ArcMap and R.

Low Dissolved Oxygen in Stratified Stormwater Ponds Causes Release of Phosphorus
Vinicius Taguchi

  • Abstract

    Low Dissolved Oxygen in Stratified Stormwater Ponds Causes Release of Phosphorus

    Vinicius Taguchi1, Ben Janke2, Jacques Finlay2, and John Gulliver1

    1St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota

    The original design recommendations from the US EPA National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) recommended that stormwater ponds have a permanent water depth ranging from 1 to 8 meters. This would allow for particulate settling while avoiding stratification and anoxia that could lead to phosphorus release from captured sediments. Subsequent studies have since observed stratification in shallow stormwater ponds, some even as shallow as 40 cm. Other studies have observed that this stratification can last as long as 10 to 30 days, even in shallow ponds. In a study of 6 intensively-monitored shallow stormwater ponds (< 3 m deep) in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, supported by seasonal surveys of 25 additional shallow ponds in the surrounding area, we observed widespread and persistent stratification in many ponds. In some, density stratification from winter road salt applications set up chemostratification long before thermostratification established in the summer. It is also possible that the early presence of chemostratification facilitated the formation of thermostratification and could even have strengthened it. In other ponds, especially those with little tree sheltering, wind mixing may have prevented long-term stratification. Still other ponds, where tree sheltering was abundant, were observed to be stratified even without the presence of excessive road salts. Stratification appears more widespread than expected in shallow stormwater ponds. As a consequence, ponds may experience lower oxygen than they were designed for. This can result in anoxic (< 1 mg/L dissolved oxygen) sediment phosphorus release and long-lasting stratification may increase annual release and of phosphorus from storm ponds, greatly reducing their effectiveness as a water quality treatment practice.

Creating and Growing a Cyanobacteria Monitoring Program in Connecticut to Inform Public Health Decisions at Beaches
Walter Tokarz

  • Abstract

    Creating and Growing a Cyanobacteria Monitoring Program in Connecticut to Inform Public Health Decisions at Beaches

    Walter Tokarz, Tracy Lizotte, Ansel Aarrestad, Mary Becker, and Christopher J. Bellucci

    Water Monitoring Program, Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Hartford, Connecticut

    In the summer of 2012, a cyanobacteria bloom covered Lower Bolton Lake in Bolton Connecticut with a thick green scum raising the alarm to the local community. In response to the Lower Bolton Lake cyanobacteria bloom, the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection worked with local public health officials and the State Department of Public Health to develop a guidance document to manage future cyanobacteria blooms. The guidance followed Vermont’s Cyanobacteria Guidance for Vermont Communities and is focused on 3 methods to monitor swimming areas – visual surveillance, cell counts, and toxin testing.

    Visual observations, cell counts and microcystin concentration data collected at one swimming area over a five-year period from 2014–2018 will be presented. This information documented the advance of cyanobacteria blooms leading to beach closure during each summer, and ultimately informing the decision to permanently close this location to swimming in 2019.

Spatial and Temporal Variation of Algal Community Assemblage and Abundance in the Rideau and Trent-Severn Waterways
Lindsay Trottier

  • Abstract

    Spatial and Temporal Variation of Algal Community Assemblage and Abundance in the Rideau and Trent-Severn Waterways

    Lindsay Trottier1, Chantal Vis2, Paul Hamilton3, Frances Pick4, and Jesse Vermaire1

    1Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Parks Canada, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada; 3Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) negatively impact freshwater ecosystems, causing variation in the taste, smell, or appearance of water, and sometimes through the addition of toxins to their surroundings. Factors such as nutrient concentration, turbidity, temperature, and stratification are known to affect the prevalence and production of HABs. The prevalence of HABs has increased dramatically in Ontario over the past 25 years, especially within northern and eastern regions. With HABs becoming more widespread, it is crucial that they are researched and methods for prevention are investigated further. Past studies have shown that spatial variation in algal community assemblage and abundance exists in the Rideau Waterway; however, there has been limited research of this nature conducted on the Trent-Severn Waterway. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of algae has not been carried out on the Rideau Waterway since the late 1990s, therefore 20 years of variation has not yet been examined. This research addresses these problems by focussing primarily on the impact of water flow rates and nutrient levels on algal community assemblage and abundance in the Rideau and Trent-Severn waterways. These waterways contain extensive systems of locks and dams which regulate water levels and flow rates throughout. To address spatial and temporal variation in algal community assemblage and abundance, sestonic and periphytic algae have been sampled along each waterway over a gradient of average water velocity and nutrient concentrations. Variation in algal community assemblage and abundance between sites on each waterway, between the two waterways, and through time have been investigated.

Evaluation of Herbicide Sonar Genesis® for the Control of Fontinalis sp. (Aquatic Moss)
Erika Van Goethem

  • Abstract

    Evaluation of Herbicide Sonar Genesis® for the Control of Fontinalis sp. (Aquatic Moss)

    Erika M. Van Goethem, Ben E. Willis, and West M. Bishop

    SePRO Research and Technology Campus, SePRO Corporation, Whitakers, North Carolina

    Fontinalis sp. is an aquatic moss that is found across the northern United States. However, aquatic moss can become a nuisance species, forming extremely dense monocultures across a waterbody’s surface, sediments and banks, limiting the ability for other native aquatic plants to thrive and form habitat for other aquatic species. Traditional contact herbicides select for the spread of this species in a waterbody; thus, an alternative herbicide is needed to control aquatic moss. This research assessed the ability of Sonar Genesis® to prevent new growth and control aquatic moss. Free floating aquatic moss was placed in 57 L aquaria filled with well water and allowed to establish for six weeks prior to treatment. Aquatic moss was statically exposed to fluridone concentrations of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 90 µg a.i. L-1 as Sonar Genesis®, including untreated control (4 replicates). Injury was visually assessed throughout the course of the experiment and chlorophyll was measured at the end of the study. Two weeks after treatment (WAT), fluridone suppressed new growth and chlorosis observed on new growth of the aquatic moss. Treatment concentrations below 30 µg a.i. L-1, provided only partial and temporary injury to the aquatic moss, while treatments above 30 µg a.i. L-1 showed long term reduction in growth and browning (beyond 14 weeks).

Algae Mitigation Using Air Nanobubbles
Jason Verhoef

  • Abstract

    Algae Mitigation Using Air Nanobubbles

    Jason Verhoef and Andrea White

    Moleaer, Torrance, California

    Nanobubbles (< 400 nm diameter) exhibit unique properties: high surface tension, negative charge, persistence/stability, neutral buoyancy, high surface area by volume, and Brownian motion, providing higher oxygen transfer efficiencies (OTE) than traditional aeration methods (> 85%). This increased OTE is independent of water depth allowing the use of nanobubbles to maintain aerobic conditions throughout the footprint of a water body and vertically throughout the water column. A velocity based nanobubble generation technology was tested at a 1.3-acre lake in Florida with persistent algae blooms despite monthly treatments of copper sulfate and installation of two 1/2 hp piston compressors adding 8 CFM of air at 20 PSI via air stones. A nanobubble system running at 200 GPM and with an air flow rate of 20 CFH at 120 PSI replaced chemical treatment and air stones. Dissolved oxygen levels were taken before and during 6 weeks of nanobubble aeration at water depths of 2’ and 8’ near the nanobubble injection point, the opposite end of the lake and the center of the lake. An even distribution of oxygen throughout the lake was observed with a 100% increase near the sediment and > 35% increase near the surface. No algae blooms were observed during the nanobubble study and there was a noticeable decomposition of the organic material in sediment. After ending the nanobubble study the algae blooms had begun to return within two months suggesting at this site the nanobubbles did not eradicate the algae but mitigate algae growth by preventing nutrient recycling under anaerobic conditions.

The Effects of Surface Mixer Operation in a Drinking Water Supply Reservoir
Danielle Wain

  • Abstract

    The Effects of Surface Mixer Operation in a Drinking Water Supply Reservoir

    Emily Slavin1, Danielle J. Wain2, R.G. Perkins3, and C. Blenkinsopp1

    1University of Bath, Bath, England, UK; 2Colby College Waterville, Maine and 7 Lakes Alliance, Maine; 3Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK

    To reduce the problems associated with the effects of thermal stratification on drinking water quality, utilities are increasingly investing in surface mixing destratification systems. In England and Wales since 2013, 4 utilities have installed 11 surface mixers (SMs) in water supply reservoirs. However, the effects of surface mixers on water quality are not fully understood as this is a relatively novel method of artificial destratification. Here, we present the effects of a surface mixer in a shallow hypereutrophic reservoir in Somerset, UK, which has seen an increase in phytoplankton counts since the installation of a surface mixer. A week-long field survey was conducted in this reservoir with intensive water sampling and in-reservoir monitoring using multi-parameter probes and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). During the field campaign the surface mixer was turned off for 33 hours and 30 minutes and back on again. Preliminary results indicate that surface mixer operation improved distribution of dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the water column, and created a uniform temperature profile, but had considerable impact on the currents near the sediments. We hypothesise that in a shallow, hypereutrophic reservoir, surface mixer operation increases passive transport of phytoplankton through the water column between the sediments where resuspension causes release of bioavailable nutrients, and the surface where light is available for photosynthesis.

Diatoms as an Indicator of Water Quality for Squam and Newfound Lake
Sydney Welch

  • Abstract

    Diatoms as an Indicator of Water Quality for Squam and Newfound Lake

    Sydney Welch and Lisa Doner

    Plymouth State University, Plymouth, New Hampshire

    This study provides information critical to understanding the major factors influencing water quality in two, deep, oligotrophic lake in central New Hampshire. It develops a seasonal baseline for water chemistry and diatom assemblages and compares that baseline to changes associated with high precipitation events. Squam Lake (43°44’31.8362”, -71°33’18.8065”) and Newfound Lake (43° 41′ 20.2194”, -71° 47′ 23.7474) assessed in winter, February and March, and during the open water interval using surface and hypolimnion water collections. Parameters analyzed include nitrate, Total phosphorus, pH, conductivity and turbidity. From June – September, plankton collections of diatoms in the “was water column above the hypolimnion were taken every two weeks and following storm events.

    To establish the pre-industrial baseline of water quality for these two lakes, sediment cores of Newfound and Squam Lake were analyzed for diatoms at one-centimeter intervals. The silicate frustules of diatoms settle onto the bottom of the lake bottom and are preserved in sediments. Lake bottom sediments accumulate in chronological order, which makes a record of a sequence of the diatom species present in the lake through time.

    If changes in water quality are driven primarily by short-term weather events, the two lakes should experience similar algal responses, varying only by watershed sensitivity, and at the same time. If land-based parameters are the dominant factor, then teach watershed will respond with different patterns in the water chemistry and diatom assemblages, due to local factors.

Does Dissolved Organic Matter Have a Direct Negative Effect on Cladocerans?
Keiko Wilkins

  • Abstract

    Does Dissolved Organic Matter Have a Direct Negative Effect on Cladocerans?

    Keiko Wilkins and Craig Williamson

    Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

    Within the Northeastern United States and Western Europe, lakes are experiencing large increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) leading to a phenomenon known as “browning.” Browning has been debated to have a variety of concentration dependent effects on primary production. The relationship between DOM and primary production is hypothesized to have a unimodal relationship where DOM has positive effects below a threshold concentration and negative effects above the threshold concentration. The threshold concentration has been widely debated with several studies suggesting a DOM concentration of 4–6 mg/L while others have suggested 10–15 mg/L. At low DOM concentrations, the mechanism driving positive effects is believed to be due to the addition of nutrients. At high DOM concentrations, the negative effects are believed to be due to the absorption of light (shading). These effects on primary production can transfer to higher trophic levels such as zooplankton and fish. However, not much is known about the direct effects of DOM on zooplankton. The relationship between DOM and zooplankton production may have a similar unimodal relationship as seen in primary production, but this has not been directly tested. The potential negative effects of DOM on zooplankton will be tested to determine if a unimodal relationship exists and where the threshold DOM concentration for zooplankton might be.