Wednesday, November 13
1:30 pm – 3:00 pm

Agenda subject to change.
Updated 1 November 2019

★ Denotes that the lead author is a student.


F1: Source Water Management

Moderator: Joe Duncan
Champlain Water District, South Burlington, Vermont

1:35 The Role of the Planner in Source Water Protection
Chi Ho Sham1 and Bill Cesanek2
1Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts; 2CDM Smith, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Source water is a raw, untreated supply of water used for current or potential future drinking water. Source water protection is a proactive, front-line set of approaches to safeguard, maintain, or improve the quality of drinking water sources and their contributing areas. The direct link between land and water quality is well recognized and over the past decade successful programs that better connect land use planning and water quality management have been emerging. The American Planning Association (APA) has created a Water Task Force that published a report in 2015 and held a Water and Planning Connect Conference in 2018. This paper will present the findings of the APA water planning initiative and lessons learned from the 2018 Water and Planning Connect Conference as related to source water protection. We will discuss the strategic points of intervention for putting source water protection into the planning process, include 1) long range visioning, 2) plan making, 3) regulations and/or incentives, 4) development project review, and 5) public investment.

1:55 New York City’s Source Water Protection Program: An Overview of Two Decades of Effective Source Water Protection
David S. Warne

New York City Department of Environmental Protection, New York, New York

New York City’s water supply reservoirs provide over one billion gallons of high-quality drinking water each day to more than nine million customers. This water comes from the Catskill, Delaware, and Croton watersheds that extend more than 125 miles from the City and include 19 reservoirs in nearly 2,000 square miles of watershed. Since the early 1990s, the City has invested more than $2 billion in source water protection programs. The Catskill/Delaware portion of the supply remains one of only five large unfiltered supplies in the US. The City, in cooperation with local partners, has implemented an array of programs, at different spatial and temporal scales, designed to prevent or remediate potential and existing sources of water pollution. The program has been highly effective in protecting water quality and public health and is viewed as an international model. The presentation will provide an overview of the origins of the program, summarize the status of its key elements and discuss how the program is evolving to address new threats to water quality, including climate change and invasive species.

2:15 Building Collaborative Projects Between Agricultural Producers and the Water Sector Through Farm Bill Programs
Adam Carpenter

American Water Works Association, Washington, District of Columbia

Over the past several years, AWWA has worked to develop relationships between agricultural producers and the water sector. Following a two-track approach, AWWA has advocated for provisions to the 2018 Farm Bill to enhance source water protection as well as worked with utilities, NRCS, agricultural producers and others to develop projects that help protect source waters using voluntary, cooperative tools.

Through these activities, there are two key successes to report:

    • First, several provision in the farm bill will greatly enhance source water protection, including a minimum expenditure of 10% of conservation funds on source water protection.
    • Second, a number of new large collaborations have started in recent years, involving over $10 million in new spending on source water protection issues related to agriculture.

This presentation will describe the history of these activities, including:

    • History of the Farm Bill
    • The process and result of source water protection provisions in the 2018 Farm Bill.
    • Status of NRCS programs, rules, and guidance on implementing source water protection
    • Examples of past and ongoing projects in these programs
    • Pathways forward for additional collaborations in the future
2:35 Land Conservation for Source Water Protection – A Collaborative Model for Water Resource Managers and Land Trusts
Marson Nance

Northwest Arkansas Land Trust, Fayetteville, Arkansas

Northwest Arkansas is experiencing a population and development boom. Projected population growth for Northwest Arkansas through 2030 is 58% making it the fastest growing region in the Central United States. Conservative estimates are that 9 acres of open space are converted to residential or commercial development daily. Conversion of land poses significant challenges to conservation practitioners and lake managers in the Beaver Lake Watershed. Beaver Lake is the drinking water source for 1 in 7 Arkansans, and average daily demand for water in the region is 55 million gallons. Protection of the watershed is critical to maintaining water quality and affordable treatment of drinking water. Four streams within the watershed and the lake are impaired. Beaver Water District, which supplies potable water to the region recognized the need to protect its watershed and source water by adopting a Source Water Protection Plan in 2012. This plan recognized the role land conservation plays in protecting water quality throughout the watershed. Beaver Water District partnered with Northwest Arkansas Land Trust to fund stewardship of land conserved within the watershed, with special emphasis on riparian areas and properties within the Priority Source Water Protection Area. To date, Northwest Arkansas Land Trust has protected 1,000 acres within the watershed. Conservation of land prevents deleterious impacts from development and unsustainable agricultural practices, leading to protection of water quality. This collaboration is a model for water managers and land trusts. Through collaboration and funding agreements, more land can be saved, and more water can be protected.


F2: Salt IV – Getting Salty

Moderator: Natalie Flores
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

1:35 Effects of Chloride and Nutrients on Freshwater Zooplankton Communities
Danielle Greco1, Shelley Arnott1, Brandon Schamp2, and Isabelle Fournier3
1Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Biology, Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada; 3Centre for northern studies, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, Canada; Department of Biology, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, Canada

Millions of tonnes of road salt are applied annually across the northern hemisphere. Consequently, chloride levels are rising in lakes and streams across North America. Zooplankton are a key energy link in aquatic food webs as major grazers and food for higher trophic levels and are particularly sensitive to chloride increases. However, the impact of elevated chloride may differ depending on species composition and local environmental conditions. For example, food quantity has previously been demonstrated to reduce effects of toxins, and in turn, food quantity is influenced by lake nutrient concentration. To understand how nutrient concentrations could alter response to rising chloride concentrations, I exposed a zooplankton community from Long Lake, Ontario (44°31’51.2″N 76°23’58.5″W) to 30 gradually increasing concentrations of chloride (0.41 to 1500 mg Cl/L), crossed with either ambient (TP = 13 μg) or high (TP = 30 μg) nutrients. The strongest effects of chloride occurred below 545 mg Cl/L, by which point, crustacean zooplankton abundance declined by ~99.8%. Any further chloride increases resulted in minimal additional abundance decline. Nutrients had no effect on zooplankton susceptibility to chloride or abundance. This unexpected result may have occurred because greater chloride was associated with increases in inedible and toxic cyanobacteria, with shifts in dominance occurring at lower chloride concentrations when nutrients were elevated. Understanding how different factors affect response to salt will be crucial in instituting effective salt management plans and reducing overall use.

1:55 Salt Tolerance Variability Among Different Ecotypes of Vallisneria americana
Mohsen Tootoonchi, Lyn A Gettys, Kyle L Thayer, Ian J Markovich, and Joseph Sigmon

University of Florida FLREC, Davie, Florida

Salinity levels in a water body can increase as a result of saltwater intrusion or by runoff/leaching from de-icing salts. Increased salinity can cause salt stress in plants, which can result in reduced plant growth, suppressed reproduction, and potential eradication of sensitive species from the ecosystem, thus threatening many freshwater aquatic systems. Salt stress is a complex phenomenon and plant species show different responses to increased salinity level. Previous research utilizing vallisneria (Vallisneria americana), a native aquatic macrophyte that provides important ecosystem services in freshwater systems, revealed that ecotypes (locally adapted populations) of vallisneria respond differently to substrate composition and nutrient levels in common nursery experiments, so these ecotypes may differ in their sensitivity to salt as well. In these greenhouse experiments we assessed salt tolerance variability among 29 ecotypes of vallisneria. Instant Ocean aquarium salt was used to create saline solutions [0.2, 2.0, 4.0, 10.0 and 20.0 parts per thousand (ppt)]; plants were abruptly exposed to these saline solutions and maintained in these concentrations for 6 weeks before being visually assessed for quality and destructively harvested. Analysis of variance and non-linear regression were used to calculate EC50 values – the effective concentration of salt that reduced plant biomass and quality by 50% compared to plants grown in fresh water. Our results revealed that salt sensitivity varied significantly among ecotypes and ranged from 3.6 to 16.5 ppt. Mean EC50 values across all vallisneria ecotypes were 8.7 and 6.7 ppt for dry weight and visual quality, respectively.

2:15 Spatiotemporal 3D Water Chemistry Modeling of a Coastal Dune Lake
Challen Hyman, Richard Gray, and Dana Stephens

Mattie M. Kelly Environmental Institute, Northwest Florida State College, Niceville, Florida

The coastal dune lakes of Northwest Florida are semi-isolated coastal systems with an interesting hydrological feature of intermittent connection to the sea. These waterbodies oscillate between fresh and brackish conditions corresponding to exchange of waters with the sea through breaching of a berm. Such exchange occurs at the mouth of the system, a point source for seawater intrusion into the waterbody. Water exchange, notably intrusion of seawater, resulted in ephemeral gradients in water chemistry spanning the entirety of a coastal dune lake. Monthly water chemistry measurements (i.e., dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, and specific conductance) were collected at nine, open-water stations spanning for 15 years. Analyses of data showed four states described the dominant hydrology and water chemistry dynamics characteristics over the examined time window: 1) isolated, homogenized state with depressed salinity; 2) connected state with saltwater intrusion and pronounced water chemistry gradient; 3) isolated, homogenized state with elevated salinity; and 4) freshwater inflow with moderate water chemistry gradient. Preliminary analyses of historical data and ongoing collection of water chemistry data at 45 sites among the 16 Northwest Florida coastal dune lakes showed water chemistry variables shift across the entirety of the system at 0.5 m isobaths. These data provide ability to model the effects of saltwater influx across space at multiple depths. Identified morphology/water chemistry relationships facilitate understanding for the hydrology of these systems as well as allow the formulation of appropriate management plans for these unique waterbodies.

2:35 Impact of Salinity and Seasonal Shifts on Macrophytes Among Northwest Florida Coastal Dune Lakes
Richard Gray1, Challen Hyman1,2, and Dana Stephens1
1Mattie M. Kelly Environmental Institute, Northwest Florida State College, Niceville, Florida; 2Choctawhatchee Basin Alliance, Santa Rosa Beach, Florida

Northwest Florida coastal dune lake systems experience fluxes in salinity due to the intermittent connection of the lakes with the Gulf of Mexico. Purpose of the study was to examine submersed macrophyte community composition and understand response of macrophytes to changes in salinity and season. Macrophyte surveys were conducted within each season (i.e., winter, spring, summer, and fall) in 2018 for 16 coastal dune lakes. Submersed vegetation was collected using a frotus every 5 m for 20 m in total (shoreline to open water) at four randomly selected areas of the waterbody. Percent area covered (PAC) of submersed macrophtyes was determined for each lake and quarter sampled using Lowrance side scan and structure scan units. There were six, submersed macrophyte species identified among the 16 coastal dune lakes. Elocharis baldwinii and Cambomba caroliniana were the dominant submersed macrophytes in predominantly freshwater lakes (annual mean salinity ranged from 0 to 1.5 ppt). Ruppia maritima dominated in predominantly saline lakes (annual mean salinity 7.4 to 11 ppt). Potamogeton sp. was found in lakes ranging in annual mean salinity of 3.4 ppt to 10.3 ppt, Utricularia sp. in lakes ranging from 0.1 ppt to 14.4 ppt, and Vallisneria americana in lakes ranging from 3.4 ppt to 4.5 ppt. PAC and variance of salinity within the year (standard deviation) were negatively correlated (r2 = 0.28) among the lakes and seasons. PAC, however, varied within the year following expected patterns of increased abundance with higher temperatures and solar irradiance.


F3: Harmful Algal Blooms III

Moderator: Ann St. Amand
PhycoTech, Inc., St. Joseph, Michigan

1:35 Evaluating Environmental DNA in Lake Assessments: A Potential Early Warning Alert for the Presence of Cyanobacteria Associated with HAB Formation in New England Lakes
Alison Watts1 and Charles Culbertson2
1University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire; 2United States Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine

The detection of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins in freshwater systems has intensified in recent years. Much of this effort has been focused on the continuous monitoring of algal pigments (chlorophyll a and phycocyanin), direct microscopic cell counts, and water column transparency. While these methods are effective and should remain as viable monitoring tools, they are potentially compromised by turbidity and the presence of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the water column, or in the case of direct cell counts by fluorescence or phase-contrast microscopy, are labor intensive and have low sampling resolution. Newly emerging molecular genetic techniques are now providing sensitive detection of cyanobacteria, at the species level, well before their pigment signals can be detected. Here we present results from the first year of a study on the interaction between microbial communities in New England Lakes.

Samples will be collected during the summer of 2019 from lakes with a history of HAB formation. High throughput sequencing of target loci (e.g., 16S, 18S) will be used to identify the ecological community present at a location, providing unambiguous detection. Next, changes in autocorrelation and variance in environmental conditions will analyzed statistically to determine whether transitions to HABs can be predicted prior to their occurrence.

1:55 Methods to Increase Detection and Characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms Using Traditional Sensor Technology
Vincent W. Moriarty1, Michael R. Kelly1, Lawrence W. Eichler2, Mark A. Lucius2, Ken Johnston2, and Harry R. Kolar1
1IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, New York; 2Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) present a significant ecosystem, human health, and economic threat to lake communities. Sensors capable of detecting algae associated with harmful blooms have become an increasingly important tool in HAB monitoring programs but can be of limited utility when used without additional quality control procedures. Additional post-processing, as well as novel approaches to sensor interfaces can greatly improve the detection ability of these sensors.

Traditional fluorescence-based sensors can be used for in situ measurements of photosynthetic pigments associated with HABs and are the most common type of sensor used in commercially available multiparameter sondes. While useful, these sensors have known limitations that can reduce the quality and fidelity of any final data product. Additionally, the quantity of algal cells found in mid-lake open water environments is often near the detection limit of these sensors and detection of HABs in larger lakes is often limited to near-shore monitoring stations. To address some of these technical challenges, methods were developed as part of the Jefferson Project at Lake George to compensate for limitations in sensor technology. As part of a 2018 pilot project using commercially available sensors driven by custom data acquisition and analysis software, Jefferson Project researchers were able to characterize the development and dissolution of multiple HABs from a mid-lake sensor platform.

2:15 Advanced Water Quality Monitoring to Assess Biogeochemical Processes Related to Harmful Algal Bloom Development, Duration, and Decline in the Finger Lakes, New York
Guy M. Foster

US Geological Survey, New York Water Science Center, Troy, New York

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly a global concern because they pose a threat to human and aquatic ecosystem health and cause economic damages. The study of HABs presents several unique challenges. For example, 1) spatiotemporal variability is characteristic of blooms, and occurrence may vary substantially within relatively short (meters) distances and periods of time (minutes), and 2) relations between spatiotemporal dynamics and environmental conditions are unique to individual systems and are the result of the interactions between biological, physicochemical, and hydrologic factors. In the face of these challenges, continuous-water-quality and nutrient sensors, as well as remote sensing, have supplemented traditional studies. These new approaches have enhanced scientific studies and facilitated the development of tools that guide management and public health decisions. In 2018, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, developed and deployed advanced monitoring platforms on three Finger Lakes representing a range of trophic and bloom conditions. Data are being collected at relatively short temporal scales (15-minutes to 2 hours) to capture biogeochemical processes that are missed using more traditional sampling approaches (weeks to months).

2:35 Extended Discussion


F4: Nutrient Loading

Moderator: David Neils
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, New Hampshire

1:35 Data for Decision Making: The Lake Winnipeg Community-Based Monitoring Network
Chelsea Lobson1, Mike Stainton1, and Greg McCullough1,2
1Lake Winnipeg Foundation, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Center for Earth Observation Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Lake Winnipeg, the world’s 10th largest lake, has had an increase blue-green algae blooms in the last decade caused by an increase in phosphorus loading to the lake. Frequent, responsive phosphorus monitoring that catches all major flow events is required to accurately calculate phosphorus loads and exports. The Lake Winnipeg Community-Based Monitoring Network (LWCBMN) provides training, equipment and lab analysis to conservation partners and citizen scientists to collect water samples for phosphorus testing in Manitoba. Sampling occurs at stations where the Water Survey of Canada measures discharge and samples are analyzed in a federal lab. In the 2016 pilot project, 200 samples were collected from 12 sites. 2016 results demonstrated the importance of sampling frequently during the spring melt and after large rain events. Phosphorus exports reported in 2016 were some of the highest ever reported in rural Manitoba at the time (0.07–1.13 kg/ha/y). In 2017, 800 samples were collected from 70 sites and localized phosphorus hotspots were identified (-0.15–1.88 kg/ha/y), demonstrating the importance of sampling many smaller drainage areas to more precisely identify hotspots. In 2018, 1000 samples were collected from 101 sites. 2018 was a dry year and all sites had low flow, resulting in low phosphorus export from all drainage areas (-0.06–0.22 kg/ha/y), highlighting the potential to replicate dry conditions, and low phosphorus export, by holding water on the land. Resources can now be targeted to the phosphorus hotspots identified through LWCBMN’s community-generated data to have the greatest impact on phosphorus loading to Lake Winnipeg.

1:55 Multi-Decadal Assessment of Reservoir Nutrient Dynamics Using Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling
Matthew Aupperle, Dario Del Giudice, A. Sankarasubramanian, and Daniel R. Obenour

North Carolina State University, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Raleigh, North Carolina

Jordan Lake is an important water supply and recreational reservoir in North Carolina suffering from anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and excessive algal productivity. While substantial efforts have been made to curb eutrophication, high nutrient and cyanobacteria levels have been common since the reservoir’s completion in 1982. Thus, mechanistic modeling is required to understand the impacts of historical nutrient loadings and the potential response of the lake to future management. Here, we develop a mass-balance model to simulate monthly nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in four reservoir segments for over 30 years while considering sediment water interactions. The model is informed primarily by monthly watershed nutrient loading estimates developed via USGS multiple-regression modeling, and it is calibrated and validated using in-lake nutrient concentrations. Within a rigorous Bayesian framework, model calibration to observed data systematically updates prior information from previous research, resulting in refined posterior biophysical rate estimates. This framework facilitates characterization of system uncertainties and thus risk-based management. Results show nutrients stored in lacustrine sediment can become an important source of internal loading over different seasons and time scales. The model is also used to evaluate various nitrogen and phosphorus loading reduction scenarios. Scenario results will inform policy makers about the effectiveness of different nutrient control strategies, as well as the expected time delay between their implementation and the realization of desired water quality outcomes considering system uncertainties.

2:15 Management and Restoration of Nippo Lake, Barrington, New Hampshire: A Case Study
Kirsten Nelson1 and Don Kretchmer2
1New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, New Hampshire; 2DK Water Resource Consulting LLC, Wolfeboro, New Hampshire

Nippo Lake, located in Barrington, New Hampshire, is a deep, 85-acre, mesotrophic, natural lake. Water quality data have been collected by Nippo Lake Association (NLA) volunteers, staff from the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), and the University of New Hampshire (UNH) Cooperative extension for more than 30 years. Concerns about stormwater inputs and reoccurring cyanobacteria blooms since 2010 prompted an analysis of the changes in lake water quality over time as well as a comprehensive look at current water quality. A watershed restoration plan is being prepared by the NHDES in cooperation with the NLA to identify both internal and external nutrient load sources using the Lake Loading Response Model (LLRM). The modeling results indicate that both external (watershed) and internal (release from sediments) loading of nutrients are contributing to nutrient enrichment of Nippo Lake. To address external nutrient sources, several projects aimed at nutrient load reduction within the watershed have recently been implemented. For internal sources, surficial sediments (upper 10 cm) of Nippo Lake were collected and analyzed for phosphorus content. Results of the sediment sampling confirmed the presence of sufficient mobile sediment phosphorus to support substantial internal loading in Nippo Lake and provide estimates of the mass of phosphorus that would need to be inactivated in order to reduce the internal load. Addressing internal load will be a critical future step in moving Nippo Lake towards restoration.

2:35 Lake and Watershed Management Plan Development for Three Connected Lakes in Westchester County
Michael R. Martin

Cedar Eden Environmental, LLC, Saranac Lake, New York

Lake Rippowam, Lake Oscaleta and Lake Waccabuc are mesotrophic to eutrophic lakes with a shared watershed located in South Salem, Westchester County, New York. Lake and watershed management plans were created for the three lakes in 2004. The management plans were updated in 2018/2019 using CSLAP and additional monitoring data. This presentation examines the use of CSLAP data in developing lake and watershed management plans, the effects of climatic conditions and watershed loading on water quality conditions in the the three lakes and HAB formation in Waccabuc Lake, the benefits of updating management plans, watershed and lake response modeling, considerations for plan development with multiple lakes in a shared watershed and the resultant management plan components, results and recommendations for the three lakes.


F5: Aquatic Invasive Species IV – Prevention and Management

Moderator: Chris Doyle
SOLitude Lake Management, Washington, New Jersey

1:35 Pathways of Invasion: Recreational Boater Activity, Aquatic Invasive Species Distribution, and Landscape Level Connectivity to Inform Management and Prevention Efforts in New York State
Michale Glennon, Dan Kelting, and Eric Holmlund

Paul Smith’s College Adirondack Watershed Institute, Paul Smith’s, New York

Aquatic resources are vital to the economy and ecology of the Adirondack Park and require significant investments of time and resources for detection, management, and prevention of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Since 1989, the Adirondack Watershed Institute has worked to protect water quality in northern New York state via water quality monitoring, aquatic invasive species monitoring and management, environmental science and data analysis, and broad public outreach and education. AWI’s Stewardship Program is the primary vehicle for spread prevention, achieved through education, outreach, and direct engagement with recreational boaters, thought to represent the primary means by which aquatic invasive species are dispersed and spread among waterways. Longstanding investment in the region has resulted in a wealth of long-term and broad-scale data that can be used to better understand the factors that influence both the ability of invasive species to reach new areas and those which influence the likelihood of their successful establishment. We have found that a number of factors influence the levels of recreational boating activity (i.e., propagule pressure) among lakes including lake size, access features, and connections to other waterways. We have also found that some of these same factors influence the likelihood of establishment (i.e., invasibility) of AIS including Eurasian watermilfoil. A combined analysis of these two axes of invasion risk has allowed us to identify the connections and most likely pathways of spread between established AIS populations and uninvaded waterways in the Adirondacks and Northern New York and to prioritize spread prevention efforts in the region.

1:55 The Science of Compliance: Changing Boaters’ Behaviors to Reduce the Spread of AIS
Ed Rudberg
CD3, General Benefit Corporation, Saint Paul, Minnesota

Due to the high cost of high pressure, heated water decontamination, reducing the spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) often relies upon the adoption of best management practices at the individual level. However, until CD3’s 2017–2018 Waterless Cleaning Station Pilot, tools to implement best management practices were unavailable to boaters. The process for developing these tools was an example of how we caught a “unicorn,” and changed behavior. This presentation will outline the results of the pilot including usage rates, lessons learned, adoption rate, increases in compliance, and outline the future direction of the project.

2:15 Four Years of Aquatic Plant Monitoring and Management in New Jersey’s Delaware & Raritan Canal
Heather Desko1, Chris Doyle2, Jon Gosselin3, Emily Mayer4, and Mark Heilman5
1New Jersey Water Supply Authority, Clinton, New Jersey; 2SOLitude Lake Management, Washington, New Jersey; 3SePRO Corporation, Manchester, New Hampshire; 4SOLitude Lake Management, Washington, New Jersey and University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; 5SePRO Corporation, Carmel, Indiana

The New Jersey Water Supply Authority is faced with managing dense aquatic plant growth affecting flow through the Delaware & Raritan Canal, a 60-mile long historic barge canal that was rehabilitated in the 1950’s to serve as a water supply source. The 2016 incidental discovery of hydrilla during conventional mechanical raking led to an initial baseline survey, and subsequently, the development of an Aquatic Plant Management Plan, 60 miles of canal submersed aquatic vegetation mapping, a low-dose herbicide application, and an intensive monitoring plan to manage the infestation. The Authority is tasked with addressing the aquatic plants while balancing the requirements, demands and desires of a diverse range of interested parties, including historic and popular linear state park, golf courses and water treatment facilities that supply drinking water to more than 1 million people. This presentation will cover the aquatic plant management, mapping, and monitoring from 2016 to 2019.

2:35 Delaware and Raritan Canal Hydrilla Control Program Fisherman Perception Survey
Emily Mayer1 and Heather Desko2
1Solitude Lake Management, Washington, New Jersey and University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; 2New Jersey Water Supply Authority, Clinton, New Jersey

Managed by the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (NJWSA), the 60-mile Delaware and Raritan canal serves as a registered historical site, a New Jersey State Park, a potable water source, a navigable waterway and is heavily used for recreational purposes. After the initiation of the three-year Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) control program in 2017, it is unclear as to what the influence of the herbicide control program has on the public perception of the fishery. The Authority wanted to gain more information regarding these public perceptions, knowledge regarding the ongoing control program and the general uses of the canal. To determine this, amongst other relative information, a qualitative questionnaire survey was developed to assess this information gathered from the fishermen on the D&R canal throughout 2019. Procedures of the data collection process shall be presented, along with an analysis of the results.


F6: Ethics in the Lake Restoration Community

Moderator: Gertrud Nürnburg
Freshwater Research, Baysville, Ontario, Canada

1:35 Paving the Road to Hell
Dick Osgood

Lake Advocates, Duluth, Minnesota

Despite our good intentions, lake management and lake managers are too often on the wrong road – as a result, lakes are not receiving the protection, management or restoration efforts and outcomes we hope for or expect. We are managing in a milieu where there is a lack of or resistance to critically evaluating the paucity of tangible, positive outcomes despite decades of management, regulatory and institutional efforts costing billions of dollars. This, I argue, is unethical. I offer suggestions for educators, researchers, regulators, policymakers, advocates, consultants, industry and citizen scientists for adopting ethical practices aimed at honest critical assessment to better facilitate accomplishing positive outcomes.

1:55 Ignorance Is Not an Excuse
Miquel Lurling

Wageningen University, Wageningen, Gelderland, the Netherlands

Eutrophication, a long-known problem of over-enrichment of surface waters with nutrients, is still by far the most important and widespread water quality issue. In the Netherlands, despite huge investments in tackling point source nutrient pollution, the majority of the surface waters are not meeting legislative water quality demands, mostly caused by eutrophication as a result of legacies, diffuse and point loadings. The Netherlands is the second largest exporter of agricultural goods on the planet (101 billion USD in 2018), after the US, but it is 231 times smaller than the US. The amount of nutrient spill from agricultural activities alone is enough to maintain eutrophication issues. Consequently, ongoing cyanobacterial nuisance paves the road for in-lake interventions that can be effective, sometimes with unintended consequences, but also opens the door for “snake oil techniques.” Those “magic one-size-fits-all solutions” neglect the importance of a proper diagnosis, a lake system analysis that will guide to tailor made interventions. I will provide examples where water authorities, deliberately disregarding scientific facts, were and are implementing techniques that don’t and cannot work or are even promoting such “magic pills.”

2:15 Ethical Conduct in NALMS’ Activities
Gertrud Nürnberg

Freshwater Research, Baysville, Ontario, Canada

Ethics is defined as “the basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct.” This mini session explores the need of “Ethics” in lake management. Lack of reporting failures of lake rehabilitation efforts (Dick Osgood: Paving the Road to Hell) and altogether mispresentation of tools and techniques (Miquel Lürling: Ignorance Is Not an Excuse) demonstrate ethical deficiencies on a large scale. The present talk examines ethical practices closer to home, right in the NALMS community (e.g., “NALMS Code of Conduct”). NALMS’ outlets and media are numerous. Written outlets are peer-reviewed publications, editor-reviewed periodicals, newsletters, websites and downloadable information. Spoken and live outlets are presentations, posters, and workshops. I will investigate how other societies and journals provide statements to ensure ethical conduct. By highlighting potential problem areas, a discussion is started and the sensitivity to ethical missteps increased. Practical suggestions will be provided. My intent and hope are that such heightened awareness increases ethical conduct in NALMS, my favorite lake restoration community.

2:35 Panel Discussion chaired by Perry Thomas