Details will be added as they become available.
Agenda subject to change.
★ Denotes that the lead author is a student

Updated 19 October 2018

 

Wednesday, October 31

7:00 am – 8:30 am

Continental Breakfast / Exhibits Open / Poster Viewing

 

8:30 am – 10:00 am

Opening Plenary Session

 

10:00 am – 10:30 am

Refreshment Break / Exhibits Open / Poster Viewing

 

10:30 am – 12:00
Concurrent Session A

A1: Large Data Sets and Long-Term Monitoring
Moderator: Kiyoko Yokota, Biological Field Station – SUNY Oneonta, Cooperstown, New York

  • Taxonomic Data Quality of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples Used for the 2017 National Lakes Assessment
    James Stribling

    Taxonomic Data Quality of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples Used for the 2017 National Lakes Assessment

    James Stribling1, Kendra Forde2, and Richard Mitchell2

    1Tetra Tech, Inc., Owings Mills, Maryland; 2US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, District of Columbia

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has been executing consistent and technically defensible surveys of the Nation’s water resources since 2004. The series of National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) uses physical, chemical, and biological data to assess the condition of wadeable streams, large rivers, lakes and reservoirs, wetlands, and coastal waters. The 2017 National Lakes Assessment (NLA2017) took approximately 1,100 benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 1,000 lakes across the country. Samples have been laboratory-sorted to 500 organisms, and identified to standard hierarchical target levels, primarily genus. Quality control (QC) analyses on the data are being used to quantify identification error rates, isolate problematic taxa, and develop targeted corrective actions. The analyses are a direct sample by sample comparison of taxonomic identification results by independent laboratories and taxonomists, quantification of error rates (disagreements), and comparison to programmatic measurement quality objectives (MQO). To date, these analyses have been completed for 69 of the randomly-selected 10% of the total sample lot (n = 110), and numbers of taxa observed within samples range from 8–89. Although, the largest error rates have to do with inconsistently attaining target level, straight disagreements are dominant for Hydrobiidae, several genera of Chironomidae (for example Hydrobaenus, Stempellinella, Dicrotendipes, and Cladotanytarsus), Gammarus, Nais, among others. In spite of this, the running average taxonomic error rate (percent taxonomic disagreement [PTD]) is 8.8%, substantially better than the programmatic standard MQO of 15%. Seven samples exceeding have PTD ranging from 16.2–23.9. Compiled results from the project will serve as an objective, quantified statement of taxonomic data quality.

  • Structural Changes to Lake Ecosystems Resulting from Long-Term Browning
    Rachel Pilla

    Structural Changes to Lake Ecosystems Resulting from Long-Term Browning

    Rachel M. Pilla1, Craig E. Williamson1, Lesley B. Knoll2, Jennifer A. Brentrup3, Taylor H. Leach4, Thomas J. Fisher5, John D. Lenters6, Elizabeth M. Mette1, Robert E. Moeller1, Erin P. Overholt1, Robyn L. Smyth7, and Jing Zhang5

    1Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; 2Itasca Station and Biological Laboratories, University of Minnesota, Lake Itasca, Minnesota; 3Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; 4Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York; 5Department of Statistics, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; 6Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Boulder Junction, Wisconsin; 7Environmental and Urban Studies Program, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York

    During the past several decades, many lakes have experienced changing water clarity, a fundamental structurer of lake ecosystems, resulting from a variety of external stressors. Even the most well-managed and protected lakes are susceptible to changes in atmospheric conditions that percolate to the lake via the watershed, including climate change and acid deposition. In northeastern Pennsylvania, two pristine lakes have shown marked decreases in water clarity since the 1980s due to continually-increasing carbon concentrations in the lake caused by increases in rain and storm events plus reduced atmospheric acid deposition. These two lakes have experienced concurrent changes in water temperature, water column stability, and deep-water oxygen availability. Decreases in water clarity have led to warmer surface water temperatures, and, due to the limited penetration of light and heat deeper in the lake, the bottom waters have significantly cooled at the same time. Combined, these changes have led to strong increases in summer thermal stability of the lake, which has reduced vertical mixing. One of the primary ecosystem consequences of this is oxygen depletion in the deeper waters. The deeper waters of these lakes no longer receive enough light for net photosynthesis to occur. Additionally, reduced vertical mixing limits the ability of oxygen to be replenished from shallower surface waters. These physical changes likely play a key role in the variety of other changes that have been observed in these lakes, including alteration of food webs and human-derived services.

  • Long-Term Trend Methodologies for Productivity Parameters Relating to Algal Blooms in Alberta Lakes
    Bradley Peter

    Long-Term Trend Methodologies for Productivity Parameters Relating to Algal Blooms in Alberta Lakes

    Bradley Peter

    Alberta Lake Management Society, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    Concern is increasing over the changes in productivity and severity of algal blooms in Alberta lakes. Long-term monitoring by the Alberta Lake Management Society (ALMS) and Alberta Environment has been active for decades. ALMS’ LakeWatch program uses citizen scientists paired with trained technicians to collect a suite of water quality parameters on lakes across Alberta. However, a comprehensive trend analysis of these lakes has not been completed since 2008. In 2018, the Alberta Lake Management Society began running trend analysis on lakes with 10 or more years of data for the parameters chlorophyll a, total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved solids (TDS) and Secchi depth. While trends in Alberta Lakes have been assessed on various occasions, there is no standardized method for determining which test is appropriate for the data. This report will summarize methods of trend analysis using results from Pigeon Lake as a case study and propose a methodological way of choosing a trend analysis. Differences in temporal sampling and sampling effort across years can greatly skew trend results. Changes in sampling methods or timing may cause shifts in data that could be incorrectly interpreted as trends. It is therefore important to address this variation to ensure consistent methods and sampling effort over time. By displaying important long-term trends, stewards are able to take ownership of the data they are collecting and understand the changes happening in their lakes.

  • Cyanobacterial Blooms Modify Food Web Structure and Interactions in Western Lake Erie
    Ruth Briland

    Cyanobacterial Blooms Modify Food Web Structure and Interactions in Western Lake Erie

    Ruth Briland, Manjunath Manubolu, Josh Stone, Jiyoung Lee, and Stuart Ludsin

    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    With cultural eutrophication and climate change causing an increase in cyanobacterial blooms worldwide, the need to understand the consequences of these blooms on aquatic ecosystems is paramount. Key questions remain unanswered with respect to how cyanobacteria blooms affect the structure of aquatic food webs, the foraging abilities of higher consumers, and the potential for cyanotoxins (e.g., microcystins, MCs) to accumulate in fish. Toward addressing these uncertainties, we sampled physicochemical attributes, water (for MCs), phytoplankton, zooplankton, and epipelagic and benthic age-0 fish at 75 sites (40 site for fish) of varying cyanobacteria concentration (0.1 to 44 µg/L) in western Lake Erie during the cyanobacterial bloom season, 2013–2014. Sites with high cyanobacteria biomass were characterized by Microcystis spp. (84–100% of biomass), detectible levels of MCs (maximum = 10.8 µg/L), and low water transparency (minimum = 0.25 m). Counter to our expectations, we found strong positive relationships between cyanobacteria concentration of edible phytoplankton, cryptophytes, and the biomass of several herbivorous zooplankton taxa (e.g., Daphnia retrocurva, Diaphanosoma spp., B. (Eubosmina) coregoni, and calanoid copepods). Our expectations regarding fish were partly supported (e.g., diet selectivity varied across a cyanobacteria gradient) and partly not (e.g., consumption of zooplankton did not differ between bloom and non-bloom sites). Our findings show that cyanobacterial blooms can strongly affect the distribution, composition, and interactions of zooplankton and fish, sometimes in surprising ways, highlighting the need to further explore their impact on aquatic food webs.

 

A2: Combating Invasive Species
Moderator: Amy Smagula, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, New Hampshire

  • Quagga Mussels Eradicated from an Entire Pennsylvania Lake
    Gavin Ferris

    Quagga Mussels Eradicated from an Entire Pennsylvania Lake

    David Hammond1 and Gavin Ferris2

    1Earth Science Labs, Inc., Bentonville, Arkansas; 2Solitude Lake Management, Inc., Virginia Beach, Virginia

    In fall of 2017, a treatment protocol to eradicate invasive quagga mussels from an entire lake in Pennsylvania was executed by Earth Science Labs and Solitude Lake Management at the request of the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The treatment consisted of 3 separate applications of EarthTec QZ, delivered over a period of 37 days. Mussel mortality was determined through use of caged adult mussels that were suspended at different locations and depths throughout the 29-acre lake. Mussels located above and below the thermocline – where water mixed well – were eradicated quickly, whereas those within the thermocline required follow-up, targeted treatment techniques and finally succumbed to 100% mortality 40 days after the initiation of treatment. Microscopic analysis of plankton tows and visual inspection of the shoreline after pump-down of the quarry in early November corroborated that all veligers and adults were successfully exterminated. Analysis of an eDNA sample taken in early December of 2017 also indicates the treatment was successful. The cumulative total copper applied throughout the entire course of treatment works out to 0.44 mg/L as calculated on the full volume of the lake. This is a historic case study because it represents the first recorded instance of a full-lake eradication of quagga mussels and is also the largest lake to have been eradicated of either quagga or zebra mussels.

  • Early Stages of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Establishment in a Small, Temperate, Kettle Lake
    Stradder Caves

    Early Stages of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Establishment in a Small, Temperate, Kettle Lake

    Stradder Caves and Dan Stich

    Biology Department, State University of New York College at Oneonta, Oneonta, New York

    Song Lake is a small, mesotrophic, kettle lake located in central New York State (NYS), with a surface area of approximately 110 acres and a maximum depth of 8 m. The first recorded sighting of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was by stakeholders in September 2017. With a native species of unionid mussel, as well as a NYS threatened plant species, lake cress (Rorippa aquatica), understanding the extent and size of the zebra mussel establishment has important management implications for this aquatic system in the future. Zebra mussel recruitment traps were placed at strategic locations around Song Lake at varying depths, and zebra mussel settlement was quantified by site and depth during summer. Vertical plankton tows were performed at the location of each trap to capture veligers to quantify the theoretically number that are present in the system through the use of cross-polarized light microscopy. With Song Lake still being in the early stages of zebra mussel establishment, both the recruitment traps and the veliger tows can be useful in determining the extent of the infestation as well as potential management strategies going forward.

  • A Tale of Two Species: Aquatic Invasives in Butterfield Lake, New York
    David Andrews

    A Tale of Two Species: Aquatic Invasives in Butterfield Lake, New York

    David Andrews1 and Dan Stich2

    1SUNY Oneonta, Oneonta, New York; 2Biology Department, SUNY Oneonta, Oneonta, New York

    Butterfield Lake, New York is a 400-hectare meso-eutrophic body of water located in the Thousand Islands Region of New York State. By the year 2000 Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) was prevalent, but not entirely dominant. Since then zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have also been observed by lakeside residents. Large areas of littoral habitat and a combination of fine organic sediment with areas of sheer rock outcrops suggest that these invasive species both could thrive within the lake and dominate the ecosystem. However, a survey on aquatic macrophytes in the year 2000 showed that a reasonable mixture of native plants and Eurasian watermilfoil existed in the lake. Zebra mussels are still relatively scarce and until this project no formal assessment of the population had been completed. We present an updated assessment of the aquatic macrophyte community, revisiting the sites surveyed in 2000 to determine any changes in composition. Additionally, we provide the first formal survey of zebra mussels in Butterfield Lake. Using a combination of physical and chemical characteristics of this lake, we suggest reasons for the unique progression of these two populations of invasive species over the past two decades.

 

A3: Alum Treatment
Moderator: Harvey Harper, Environmental Research & Design, Belle Isle, Florida

  • The Mystic(al) Lake Experience
    Kenneth Wagner

    The Mystic(al) Lake Experience

    Ken Wagner

    Water Resource Services, Wilbraham, Massachusetts

    Mystic Lake on Cape Cod in Massachusetts was one of the premier lakes on the Cape back in the 1980s and 1990s when nearby Hamblin Pond was under study and then restoration. Mystic Lake and the connected Middle Pond exhibited substantial deterioration over a 1–2 decade period, linked to low oxygen in deeper water and internal phosphorus loading, culminating in severe cyanobacteria blooms and a major mussel die off in 2009 and again in 2010. Aluminum treatment in early autumn 2010 reversed this trend, but not as well as in some other Cape Cod treatments. Issues included limitation on aluminum dose in the permit process, application at the end of a summer of intense P release from sediment and likely lower efficiency of treatment, and ongoing inputs from cranberry bogs and on-site wastewater disposal systems. Cyanobacteria blooms are less intense, water quality has improved, and the mussel community has undergone an impressive recovery, but the overall experience illustrates the tenuous nature of the three-legged stool of lake management. Science, economics and institutions interacted in this case to produce sub-ideal results. Lessons have been learned, but it is not clear that all those who need those lessons got them.

  • An Automated Low Rate Alum Addition System to Enhance Effectiveness of Wet Detention Ponds and Improve Lake Water Quality
    Harvey Harper

    An Automated Low Rate Alum Addition System to Enhance Effectiveness of Wet Detention Ponds and Improve Lake Water Quality

    Harvey Harper

    Environmental Research & Design, Belle Isle, Florida

    Wet detention ponds are one of the most common stormwater BMPs used today and provide load reductions of 20-40% for TN and 50-70% for TP, depending on design and detention time. Some projects need load reductions which exceed the capabilities of a wet detention pond, requiring the use of multiple BMPs. An alum-based system was developed to enhance the effectiveness of wet detention ponds which pumps water from the pond, samples the pH, and adds a low dose alum feed using a small variable speed metering pump. A venturi system injects microbubbles into the flow which incorporate into the floc as it forms. The water/alum mixture is discharged through an educator into a cone shaped device near the center of the pond. The air-infused floc migrates throughout the pond, removing algae and dissolved P before settling. The alum addition rate is based on the relationship between pH and algal growth and uses pH as a surrogate for nutrient levels. Alum is added automatically in proportion to the difference between the pond pH and the desired pH level. The pumping system activates daily, samples the pH, adds alum as necessary, and shuts off until the next day. Components for the system, including a 2,500 gallon alum storage tank, are located in a 200 sq. ft. open pavilion. The system operates automatically using a PLC, requires little attention, and can increase the effectiveness of a wet pond to > 70% for TN and > 90% for TP. This process can also be used on waterbodies directly, possibly allowing TMDL targets to be achieved without watershed BMPs.

  • Planning, Implementing, and Monitoring the Response of Minnesota’s Largest Alum Treatment
    Matt Kocian

    Planning, Implementing, and Monitoring the Response of Minnesota’s Largest Alum Treatment

    Matt Kocian1 and Joe Bischoff2

    1Rice Creek Watershed District, Blaine, Minnesota; 2Wenck Associates, Golden Valley, Minnesota

    For more than 30 years, Bald Eagle Lake routinely experienced severe algae blooms. The lake was added to Minnesota’s 303(d) List of Impaired Waters in 2002. Multiple diagnostic studies indicated that internal phosphorus loading was a significant portion of the annual phosphorus budget. To address internal loading, the Rice Creek Watershed District implemented the largest ever aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment in Minnesota history. Following the alum treatment, mean summer phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations decreased by 65% and 71%, respectively, while clarity improved by 64%; the improvements in water quality make the Bald Eagle Lake Alum Project a success story in lake management. However, the water quality metrics don’t tell the whole story. Planning efforts began many years prior to project initiation, including aggressive management of curlyleaf pondweed. Creative financing – including a rarely-used local tax district – was required to cover the project cost of more than $900,000. Logistical hurdles encountered during the project required operational flexibility. Perhaps most importantly, increased plant growth from improved water clarity created public backlash. Native aquatic plants increased in both distribution and density – including in highly-used recreational areas of the lake. Eurasian watermilfoil also increased, prompting new plant management activities by the Bald Eagle Lake Association. While the Bald Eagle Lake Alum Project is a success story, there are lessons to be learned about planning and implementing a lake restoration project of this scale, including improved public outreach and plain-language messaging.

  • Using an Adaptive Aluminum Sulfate (alum) Application Approach to Improve Water Quality in Bald Eagle Lake, Minnesota
    Joseph Bischoff

    Using an Adaptive Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Application Approach to Improve Water Quality in Bald Eagle Lake, Minnesota

    Joe Bischoff1, William F. James2, Brian Beck1, and Matt Kocian3

    1Wenck Associates Inc., Golden Valley, Minnesota; 2University of Wisconsin–Stout Menomonie, Wisconsin; 3Rice Creek Watershed District, Blaine, Minnesota

    Bald Eagle Lake is a highly used recreational lake in the northern suburbs of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area that routinely experienced cyanobacteria blooms. The Rice Creek Watershed District (RCWD) recently developed a targeted nutrient reduction program focused on achieving measurable improvements in lake water quality. One of the critical TMDL goals was quantify the roles of watershed and internal phosphorus loading in driving lake water quality. Laboratory-derived sediment P release was 10.8 mg/m2d, representing 44% of the P load to the lake. The RCWD decided to pursue an aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment to reduce sediment phosphorus release. The targeted alum dose was approximately 100 g Al/m2 based on laboratory jar tests. However, application of this rate throughout the lake was cost prohibitive. So, the 100 g Al/m2 rate was used for areas greater than 20 feet in depth and a lower rate of 50 g Al/m2 was used to inactivate the top 5 cm in the 15 to 20-foot depth zone. An adaptive alum application approach was used to achieve sediment aluminum targets and achieve the desired reductions in sediment phosphorus release. Half of the prescribed alum dose was applied to Bald Eagle Lake in the Spring of 2014 followed by sediment coring to measure changes in aluminum-bound phosphorus and sediment phosphorus release. Application zones and rates for the second (2016) application were adjusted based on the interim monitoring results. Following the completion of the alum applications Bald Eagle Lake is meeting State water quality standards for the first time is over 30 years.

 

A4: Algal Toxins
Moderator: Marty Hilovsky, EnviroScience, Inc., Stow, Ohio

  • Vertical Distribution of Cyanobacteria Toxins in Willow Creek Reservoir, Oregon
    Sarah Burnet

    Vertical Distribution of Cyanobacteria Toxins in Willow Creek Reservoir, Oregon

    Sarah H. Burnet and Frank M. Wilhelm

    University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho

    Blooms of cyanobacteria typically form unsightly surface scums which decrease a lake’s aesthetics, decrease water clarity, shade other algal species in the water column, and challenge the normal feeding mechanisms of zooplankton and rotifers by clogging their filtering appendages, favoring small-bodies species which can alter fish communities. Additionally, cyanobacteria can produce some of the most potent toxins known to humans. Thus, the presence of toxic cyanobacteria can lead to the closure of water bodies due to harmful algal blooms (HABs) that cannot be removed via the usual means of water treatment. Typically, toxin samples are collected at the surface where cyanobacteria are present. What has received little research is the vertical distribution of toxins in the water column. This can be important for lakes and reservoirs in which i) the outflow depth can be- and is adjusted to meet downstream temperature criteria, or ii) is restricted to a single depth, and/or iii) serves as a source of potable or irrigation water. Research has shown that toxins in irrigation water can accumulate in plant tissue and can be subsequently transferred to consumers such as livestock. We tested the null hypothesis that cyanotoxins remained in surface waters in Willow Creek Reservoir (WCR), a strongly stratified reservoir in northeastern Oregon, that usually produces toxic blooms of cyanobacteria. We collected samples at bi-weekly intervals at multiple depths from the surface to one meter above the bottom of WCR and analyzed them for microcystin and nodularin concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While toxins were predominantly present in surface waters, on several occasions toxins were detected to depths of 3 and 6 meters. Additional samples and wind data are being collected in 2018 to reach definitive conclusions about the prevalence of toxins at depth and any implications for water use during such occurrences.

  • ELISA for Anabaenopeptins and Its Use for the Monitoring of Source Waters
    Fernando Rubio

    ELISA for Anabaenopeptins and Its Use for the Monitoring of Source Waters

    Paige Ruthardt1, Tom Glaze1, Mark Aubel2, Amanda Foss2, and Fernando Rubio1

    1Abraxis Inc., Warminster, Pennsylvania; 2Green Water Laboratories, Palatka, Florida

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, and in brackish waters throughout the world. The wide variety of cyanotoxins and their congeners can lead to frequent exposure of humans through consumption of meat, fish, seafood, blue-green algal products and water, accidental ingestion of contaminated water and cyanobacterial scum during recreational activities, and inhalation of cyanobacterial aerosols. Cyanotoxins can also occur in the drinking water supply. In order to monitor human exposure, sensitive analytical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are often used.

    Anabaenopeptins (APs) are cyclic peptides comprised of a ring of five amino acid residues connected to an exocyclic residue through an ureido linkage. Anabaenopeptins were first isolated from the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae. To date at least 96 anabaenopeptins have been reported, the various congeners are structurally related. Planktothrix, Nodularia, Microcystis, Lyngbya, and Schizothrix, have also been reported as producers of anabaenopeptins. APs have been shown to be inhibitors of protein phosphatases and carboxypeptidase A.

    An ELISA for the monitoring of anabaenopeptins was developed and utilized for the detection of these toxins on 109 source water samples obtained from 30 midwestern sites during the 2016 to 2017 time period. The samples were also characterized for microcystins concentration by ELISA; and genes assays for mcyE, 16S, and sxtA by PCR. Nineteen of the samples were analyzed by PP2A, and by a LC/MS/MS method developed by Greenwater Laboratories. The results obtained indicate that anabaenopeptins are found at high concentration (up to 103 ppb) and at a high incidence rate. Details of the methods and data obtained will be presented.

  • From Algal Toxins to Environmental DNA: Passive Samplers as a Tool to Help with Multiple Management Objectives
    Ellen Preece

    From Algal Toxins to Environmental DNA: Passive Samplers as a Tool to Help with Multiple Management Objectives

    Ellen Preece and Michael Bryan

    Robertson Bryan, Inc., Elk Grove, California

    As climate changes continue to affect aquatic ecosystems, it will be useful to streamline data collection protocols, so sampling tools can simultaneously address multiple management objectives while saving time and money. One currently used tool that shows promise are Solid Phase Adsorption Tracking (SPATT) samplers. SPATTs were developed as an economical tool to passively monitor algal toxins that may be missed by discrete grab sampling. We found SPATTs can also be used to monitor for Environmental DNA (eDNA). The eDNA method is a non-invasive, and relatively rapid process that can determine species presence and organism occupancy. Typically, eDNA monitoring involves collecting a discrete grab sample. However, traditional sampling methods may limit the spatial and temporal scale of eDNA monitoring. In a pilot study, we used SPATT and discrete grab samples to determine if imperiled freshwater mussels were present in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta). We deployed six SPATTs at two Delta locations. Anodonta californiensis were detected in all SPATT and grab samples at location 1. No mussel eDNA was detected in any SPATT samples at location 2, but A. californiensis was detected in 2 of 11 grab samples. This is the first time we are aware that SPATT samplers have been used to monitor for eDNA. Although we successfully used SPATTs, additional eDNA investigations and method modification may further improve upon our results. We believe SPATTs can be used to cost effectively detect cryptic or invasive species, while simultaneously monitoring for algal toxins in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs.

  • The Effect of Local Physical Lake Conditions on the Vertical Heterogeneity of Cyanobacteria and Microcystin in Stratified Eutrophic Lakes
    Anne Wilkinson

    The Effect of Local Physical Lake Conditions on the Vertical Heterogeneity of Cyanobacteria and Microcystin in Stratified Eutrophic Lakes

    Anne Wilkinson1,2, Michele Guala1, and Miki Hondzo1

    1St Anthony Falls Lab, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Wenck, Golden Valley, Minnesota

    Cyanobacteria blooms are a ubiquitous ecological and public health risk as they have the potential to produce cyanotoxins, i.e., microcystin. Prediction and management are imperative to mitigate these risks; however, cyanobacteria blooms are highly spatially and temporally variable making monitoring, managing and prediction difficult. A high frequency, high resolution, seasonal research station was deployed to quantify local meteorological conditions, water temperature, and water chemistry, including phycocyanin, in two different eutrophic stratified lakes. The monitoring effort was coupled with weekly sampling of microcystin concentrations (MC) throughout the water column. Our objective was to describe the vertical distributions of cyanobacteria biovolume (BV) and MC using physical lake parameters. A relationship was developed to predict the vertical stratification of cyanobacteria biovolume (BV) in the entire water column using the local temperature structure under a wide range of stratification conditions. We found that MC and BV accumulated above the thermocline and were highly correlated. There were two different BV distributions observed above the thermocline a) BV uniformly distributed over the diurnal surface mixed layer and b) local BV maxima both near and below the surface. A quantitative relationship was developed to predict the probability of observing of these distributions using local mixing parameters, specifically, a Reynolds number in the diurnal surface mixing layer. Understanding vertical distribution of BV and MC is important for monitoring and management efforts, because it narrows the range of BV and MC heterogeneity and suggests a more detailed vertical sampling protocol to detect potential maxima and representative concentrations.

 

A5: Army Corps Water Quality Activities
Moderator: Erich Emery, US Army Corps of Engineers, Cincinnati, Ohio

  • Understanding HAB Impacts at USACE Managed Reservoirs
    Gerard Clyde

    Understanding HAB Impacts at USACE Managed Reservoirs

    Gerard A. Clyde, Jr.

    US Army Corps of Engineers, Tulsa District, Tulsa, Oklahoma

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages 420 freshwater multipurpose reservoirs in 43 states. The authorized multiple purposes of these reservoirs can include some or all of the following: flood control, navigation, hydropower, water supply, conservation, low flow regulation, water quality control, fish and wildlife, and recreation. Since the mid-1990s USACE Districts have observed occasional and sporadic harmful algae blooms (HABs). In the early 2000s, USACE Districts in the contiguous United States began reporting an increasing frequency and intensity of HABs. Since 2005, the duration, magnitude, and persistence of HABs at USACE managed reservoirs are reported to be increasing in general however there is a great deal of geographic variability in these trends. USACE managed reservoirs documented to experience HABs are located within the same geographic locations of USACE reservoirs documented to regularly deviate from authorized operational targets.

  • Remote Sensing Research to Support HAB Monitoring for the USACE
    Molly Reif

    Remote Sensing Research to Support HAB Monitoring for the USACE

    Molly Reif1, Richard Beck2, Min Xu2, Richard Johansen2, Erich Emery3, Hongxing Liu2, Susanna Tong2, and Xi Chen2

    1US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, JALBTCX, Kiln, Mississippi; 2Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio; 3US Army Corps of Engineers, Great Lakes and Ohio River Division, Cincinnati, Ohio

    With increased threat and frequency of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Great Lakes and Ohio River Division (LRD) initiated a request to the USACE Water Operations Technical Support Program for investigation of remote sensing technology for inland water quality monitoring. Thus, an internal report was published, “Remote Sensing for Inland Water Quality Monitoring: A US Army Corps of Engineers Perspective” (Reif 2011), triggering a pilot project to demonstrate remote sensing capabilities for estimation of water quality indicators of HABs (e.g., Chlorophyll a, Turbidity, and Blue-green Algae/Phycocyanin) in small, inland waterbodies. Project partners included the USACE (LRD, Louisville and Huntington Districts), the University of Cincinnati, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Kentucky Division of Water, and the USACE Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise for the simultaneous collection of airborne imagery and in situ water measurements at Harsha (East Fork) Lake, Ohio and Taylorsville Lake, Kentucky in June 2014. These datasets have yielded subsequent analyses and publications evaluating numerous remote sensing algorithms applied to CASI hyperspectral imagery and derived imagery data, including simulated satellite sensor configurations for Worldview 2 and 3, Sentinel-2, Landsat-8, MERIS/OLCI, and MODIS. With LRD being steward to 90% of the nation’s freshwater, including many small, inland waterbodies, remote sensing tools can serve to assist with prioritizing field-based monitoring and provide an early warning system. Recent research efforts will focus on deploying analytical approaches in an open-source software package containing a list of satellite-derived algorithms for the estimation of common HAB indicators.

  • Operating Flood Control Reservoirs to Maximize Recreation, Water Quality, and Fish and Wildlife Conservation
    Andrew Johnson

    Operating Flood Control Reservoirs to Maximize Recreation, Water Quality, and Fish and Wildlife Conservation

    Andrew Johnson

    US Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington District, Huntington, West Virginia

    On average, the multipurpose lakes of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington District, operate for flood control during 5% of the year. This leaves 95% of the year to optimize operations for other purposes such as water quality, recreation, fish and wildlife conservation, etc. The operation of these flood control reservoirs is dictated by a project’s Water Control Plan which is often seen as a rigid set of rules that eliminate judgment calls during daily operations. Although these plans strictly dictate operations during flood fighting, there are, however, flexibilities built into the plans that allow lake managers to optimize operations for other authorized purposes. Recent Huntington District optimizations include temporal changes to operations, prioritization of water quality gates, minimization of cold water discharge pollution, implementation of e-flows, and alternate scheduling for winter drawdowns. These operational changes have resulted in better habitat for endangered mussels, increased recreational opportunities in the lake and downstream, more natural flow regimes and passage of basin sediments.

  • Advanced Modeling of Nutrients with HEC-RAS
    Billy Johnson

    Advanced Modeling of Nutrients with HEC-RAS

    Billy E. Johnson1, Todd E. Steissberg2, and Zhonglong Zhang3

    1Environmental Laboratory (EL), Engineer Research and Development Center, US Army Corps of Engineers, Davis, California; 2Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), Institute for Water Resources, US Army Corps of Engineers, Davis, California; 3LimnoTech, Inc., Davis, California

    New advanced nutrient simulation capabilities have been developed and integrated within the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). Previous versions of HEC-RAS have had the capability to model temperature, the simplified nitrogen/phosphorous/algae cycle, and arbitrary constituents. The US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory (ERDC-EL) has developed nutrient simulation modules (NSMs) for integration with a number for USACE hydraulic and hydrologic modeling systems however this presentation will focus on the integration of the modules with HEC-RAS. NSM I simulates algal biomass, organic and inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus species, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen using ten state variables. NSM II, simulates multiple algal biomass, nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, pathogen, alkalinity, and pH using twenty-two state variables, as well as numerous derived water quality constituents in the water column. In addition, a benthic sediment diagenesis model was included in NSM II and accounts for the deposition of organic matter from the water column to the sediment bed of the water body, its subsequent diagenesis or decomposition, and the flux of resulting end-products back to the overlying water column. Benthic sediments are represented as two layers, where three biodegradability classes of organic matter are simulated. This presentation will discuss the current state of model integration and case studies on the Minnesota River using the new model water quality capabilities.

 

A6: Data and Water Quality (WMAO)
The Water Management Association of Ohio (WMAO) is offering this session concurrent with the NALMS Symposium and it is open to NALMS attendees.

  • Degration and Recovery of the Scioto River (Ohio-USA) Related to Reduction in Sewage Pollution Via Improved Wastewater Treatment 1979–2015
    Chris Yoder

    Degration and Recovery of the Scioto River (Ohio-USA) Related to Reduction in Sewage Pollution Via Improved Wastewater Treatment 1979–2015

    Chris Yoder

    Midwest Biodiversity Institute, Columbus, Ohio

    A 35+ year series of biological assessments in the Scioto River (Ohio-USA) since 1979 coinciding with wastewater treatment and water quality improvements firmly documents the role of improved wastewater treatment. Nearly 100 fish species were virtually eliminated by gross sewage and industrial pollution in the 19th century and industrialization, urban development, and population growth through the 20th century. Despite the threats to public health and aquatic resources, little was done to abate gross pollution for nearly a century. The 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (aka Clean Water Act) forced better control of sewage and industrial pollution. However, biological recovery following reductions in gross loadings of untreated and poorly treated sewage took another 15–20 years to fully emerge. Improvements were incremental with full recovery taking another 10–15 years. Maintenance of this level of water quality is assured by discharge permits and prohibitions against relaxing the highest water quality achieved after a permit is issued. A strong implication of these observations is that water pollution controls installed in the 1980s have emerged in the form of improved biological integrity that is now closer to pre-settlement conditions than at any time since the European settlement of the Midwestern US. The restoration success of Scioto River and its documentation resulted from CWA driven WQS and treatment technology and requirements for ambient monitoring. Serious doubts existed about the attainability of advanced wastewater treatment technology and meeting WQS in an effluent dominated river, but these doubts have since been erased by the demonstrated improvements in the biological assemblages not only in the Scioto River, but many other rivers throughout Ohio. Advanced treatment technologies are now regarded as the default requirement for any new wastewater treatment facility making the attainment of aquatic life based WQS attainable.

  • Leveraging DNA to Enhance Water Quality
    Mauricio Larenas

    Leveraging DNA to Enhance Water Quality

    Mauricio Larenas

    Source Molecular Corporation, Miami, Florida

    Stormwater managers face increasing pressure to keep waters clean from untreated discharges. DNA profiling has become the gold standard in industries such as forensic science. Microbial source tracking (MST) helps stormwater managers determine where fecal pollution is coming from, pinpoint the host responsible for the fecal pollution, and evaluate BMP effectiveness.

    The presentation includes a discussion on two MST projects in Massachusetts and California. Geosyntec conducted a project for the Boston Water and Sewer Commission in which they used DNA markers to assess the effectiveness of Boston’s MS4 IDDE program in storm water and other water systems. Santa Barbara in California used MST to identify host fecal contamination sources that polluted their beaches through storm water systems. Santa Barbara conducted a follow-up MST study to evaluate the impact of the structural and non-structural best management practices (BMPs) deployed to mitigate this fecal pollution.

  • Keeping an Eye on Water Quality in the Great Miami River Watershed
    Sarah Hippensteel Hall and Scott Bell

    Keeping an Eye on Water Quality in the Great Miami River Watershed

    Sarah Hippensteel Hall and Scott Bell

    Miami Conservancy District, Dayton, Ohio

    Water quality and quantity challenges occur regardless of political or jurisdictional boundaries. This session will make the case for statewide investment in water protection and restoration. Local communities view the Great Miami River as a valuable community asset worthy of investment. Today, the Great Miami River is one of the healthiest waterways in Ohio. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reports that water quality improvements rank as some of the most significant improvements observed for any Ohio river or stream (US Army Corps of Engineers 2014). Recent investment in riverfront recreation in and along the Great Miami River is more than $100 million and growing. Recent economic development investment in riverfront communities of commercial, retail, and residential is more than $500 million and growing. The communities in the Great Miami River recognize the potential to maximize existing and planned riverfront investments and economic development by approaching the river corridor as a unified, connected, regional place. A 2014 USACE study of the Great Miami River benchmarked rivers around the US, noting the more that a river corridor is known by a well-articulated and unifying identity – the more investment of both private and public funds is directed at projects that produce quality-of-life gains as well as economic returns and improved conservancy or important land and water habitats. Without a healthy waterway, the return on these investments could be severely diminished. The Miami Conservancy District is working with many partners to advocate for investment in the protection and improvement of rivers and groundwater. (MCD has worked to create meaningful change at a watershed scale for 100 years. Over those years, MCD helped communities deal with many water issues including flood protection, wastewater treatment, river recreation, groundwater protection, stormwater regulations, nutrient pollution, and most recently, economic development.)

  • Nutrient Mass Balance Study for Ohio’s Major Rivers
    Josh Griffin

    Nutrient Mass Balance Study for Ohio’s Major Rivers

    Josh Griffin

    Ohio EPA, Columbus, Ohio

    A nutrient mass balance was completed for nine watersheds in Ohio covering 66 percent of the state’s land area in April of 2018. The watersheds studied were in both the Lake Erie and Ohio River drainages. The objective of the study was to determine nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) loads and relative proportions of point and nonpoint sources. The study highlights differences between the watersheds both as total loads and relative contributions from different sources in the watersheds. This is the second biennial iteration of this report and now includes five years of data. Opportunities are identified for future data collection and new approaches that can refine the analysis.

 

A7: Waterways and Infrastructure (WMAO)
The Water Management Association of Ohio (WMAO) is offering this session concurrent with the NALMS Symposium and it is open to NALMS attendees.

  • Two Birds with One Stone: Funding Flood Mitigation and Infrastructure Repair with FEMA HMGP
    David Hayson

    Two Birds with One Stone: Funding Flood Mitigation and Infrastructure Repair with FEMA HMGP

    David Hayson

    Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio

    Sharonville, Ohio is at risk of riverine flooding from the Sharon Creek Tributary due to runoff from large storm events. FEMA’s Flood Insurance Rate Map reveals areas of concern for the City and its constituents as a large portion of the downtown area is within the 1%-Annual-Chance floodplain extents (100-Year). The potential flooded areas include several residential properties and commercial buildings. Damaged infrastructure, transportation impacts, and reduced economic activity are anticipated due to flooding events. High flood insurance premiums frustrate the community and deter economic vitality/growth for the City of Sharonville.

    Sharonville collaborated with Stantec to conduct hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of the Sharon Creek Tributary watershed. The modeling results exposed vulnerabilities and deficiencies with the conveyance of the existing culvert under Main Street and storm water management in the watershed. Stantec identified two mitigation activities that in combination reduce the risk of flooding in Sharonville by up to four feet for the 1%-Annual-Chance flood. The proposed culvert removal and dam spillway modifications had an estimated cost of $2.6 Million with more than $3.9 Million in expected benefits.
    With a proposed project and positive benefit-cost relationship, Stantec worked with Sharonville to identify funding opportunities. Ultimately, the City was awarded a FEMA Flood Mitigation Assistance grant with local match funding coming through the Ohio Department of Transportation, the owners of the culvert. When constructed, the proposed improvements will remove the majority of downtown Sharonville from the regulatory floodplain with limited costs to the City.

  • Indian Lake Labyrinth Spillway – Improving the Efficiency of a Historic Spillway
    Rob Kirkbride

    Indian Lake Labyrinth Spillway – Improving the Efficiency of a Historic Spillway

    Rob Kirkbride

    Stantec, Columbus, Ohio

    The Indian Lake Dam and Spillway, owned by the Ohio DNR and located in Russells Point Ohio, creates Indian Lake, the principal feature in Indian Lake State Park. The 150+ year old dam was in need of rehabilitation to address inadequate spillway capacity and severe concrete deterioration of the 700-foot-long ogee spillway. The primary focus of this presentation will be the replacement of the ogee spillway with a two-stage labyrinth spillway.

    The labyrinth style spillway simulates the original 700-foot-wide spillway within a reduced 180-foot-wide spillway section. The additional spillway length created now serves as an auxiliary spillway for storms that exceed the 100-year event.

    Construction was performed in a manner that did not impact the normal operating lake level to allow for continued recreational activities. Numerous photos and videos will be presented to show the unique structure and techniques used during this project.

  • The Green Monster: A Case Study on Earth Dam Landslides, Hidden Valley Lake Dam, Dearborn County, Indiana
    Peter Soltys

    The Green Monster: A Case Study on Earth Dam Landslides, Hidden Valley Lake Dam, Dearborn County, Indiana

    Peter Soltys

    Fishbeck, Thompson, Carr & Huber, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio

    The Hidden Valley Lake Dam located within the Hidden Valley Lake Community in Dearborn County, Indiana, has experienced a series of shallow landslides on its downstream face since the dam was completed in 1972. The latest landslides occurred in 2011, 2012, and 2018 and reflect problems related to the earth embankment construction materials, the steepness of the downstream slope, and weather conditions. This presentation discusses the conditions at the dam resulting in landslides, recognition of the problem by the owner, the owner’s emergency management response, long term monitoring responsibilities of incidents/safety deficiencies, the need for preparedness, the close working relationship with an engineer and local emergency responders, and handling the public during dam emergencies.

  • Ice Jam Awareness
    Thomas Harris

    Ice Jam Awareness

    Thomas Harris

    US Geological Survey, Columbus, Ohio

    The US Geological Survey operates and maintains river gages throughout the United States. As part of the operation of the gage, the USGS also makes routine streamflow measurements at these sites. For the northern tier states, these rivers often freeze solid, however that does not stop the USGS from making flow measurements under ice covered conditions, called ice measurements. During the winter of 2018, the USGS has made over 20 ice measurements in Ohio. These ice measurements are important to make as ice cover in the stream tends to give a higher stage for a given flow than if the stream was not ice covered. An important piece of information while making an ice measurement is the ice thickness. This winter, ice thickness were relayed to the National Weather Service offices in Wilmington and Cleveland, Ohio so they could produce more accurate river forecasts when ice finally does break up and flood towns and communities.

    During the fall 2017, as part of the Silver Jackets Team, Thomas Harris from the US Geological Survey, along with Sarah Jamison from National Weather Service Cleveland gave an Ice Jam Awareness presentation to two communities in the Cleveland area and one community in Toledo. Harris presented what it takes to form ice on streams and presented a case study of ice formation on the Conneaut River near Conneaut, Ohio. Jamison outlined the efforts of the National Weather Service in trying to predict river stage on an ice covered stream.
    During the winter of 2018, ice jams affected the communities of Zanesville, Painesville, Milan and Vermilion, Ohio.

 

12:00 pm – 1:30 pm

Lunch / Exhibits Open / Poster Viewing
NALMS Student Luncheon

 

1:30 pm – 3:00 pm
Concurrent Session B

B1: Large Data Sets and Long-Term Monitoring
Moderator: Craig Wolf, GEI Consultants, Inc., Denver, Colorado

  • Changes in Water Quality Across a Longitudinal Gradient in Lake Lemon, Indiana: A 20-Year Perspective
    Cory Sauve

    Changes in Water Quality Across a Longitudinal Gradient in Lake Lemon, Indiana: A 20-Year Perspective

    Cory Sauve

    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana

    Reservoirs are unique aquatic systems as they exhibit both lotic and lentic characteristics across a longitudinal gradient. The process in which a reservoir transitions from a riverine to a lacustrine system has implications on the physical, chemical, and biological conditions throughout the reservoir. Since 1998, the Indiana Clean Lakes Program (InCLP) has monitored Lake Lemon, a 1,650-acre reservoir located near Bloomington, Indiana. Sampling was conducted during the growing season (May–August) for each year at sites located across the longitudinal gradient of the reservoir. In this study, I will use the long-term monitoring data to summarize water quality changes for Lake Lemon over two decades and identify if the sampling sites illustrate a longitudinal gradient in the reservoir. The results of this study will contribute to the overall understanding of the various limnological processes influencing water quality in Lake Lemon, and the importance of sampling design when monitoring reservoirs.

  • Long-Term Limnological Response to Management of Internal Phosphorus Loading and Curly-Leaf Pondweed in Half Moon Lake, Wisconsin
    William James

    Long-Term Limnological Response to Management of Internal Phosphorus Loading and Curly-Leaf Pondweed in Half Moon Lake, Wisconsin

    William F. James

    University of Wisconsin–Stout, Menomonie, Wisconsin

    Half Moon Lake, a shallow oxbow cutoff located in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, has been the subject of multiple management practices over the last decade to reduce cyanobacteria blooms and abundant curly-leaf pondweed. To control internal phosphorus (P) loading, the west arm was treated with 150 g/m2 to inactivate redox-P on the order of 1–5 mg/g while the east arm was treated with 75 mg/g to bind much lower redox P in 2011. While limnological response variables improved substantially over the first 3 years post treatment, declining P binding efficiency and P diffusion through the Al floc layer resulted in recovery of internal P loading and rebounding cyanobacterial blooms (James 2017). A second Al application of 50 g/m2 to the west arm sediments in 2017 has suppressed diffusive P flux from sediments and resulted in much improved summer limnological conditions. Curly-leaf pondweed (CLP) has been controlled for nearly 10 years starting in 2009 with low-dose endothall applications in the Spring to suppress turion production. Since CLP populations have dominated the macrophyte community assemblage for decades, the turion seed bank has been difficult to deplete. Native macrophyte biomass response to management, primarily as Elodea, appeared to be most sensitive to underwater light habitat versus CLP management. However, native biomass relationship to summer Secchi transparency and PAR attenuation was weak suggesting other factors like winter snow cover extent and duration may also be influencing Elodea growth.

  • 25 Years of Water Quality Change in Rhode Island Lakes and Ponds
    Betty Kreakie

    25 Years of Water Quality Change in Rhode Island Lakes and Ponds

    Betty Kreakie1, Dorthy Kellogg2, Jeff Hollister1, Stephen Shivers3, Elizabeth Herron4, Linda Green4, and Art Gold2

    1US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island; 2University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island; 3US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development ORISE Fellow, Narragansett, Rhode Island; 4University of Rhode Island Watershed Watch, Kingston, Rhode Island

    The University of Rhode Island’s Watershed Watch Volunteer Monitoring Program has been collecting water quality data on dozens of Rhode Island lakes and ponds for over 25 years, allowing exploration of long-term trends in common water quality parameters. Not all lakes and ponds in the study area were sampled across the full time period and lakes were often added in geographic clusters (e.g., in urbanized northern Rhode Island). Similar to how long-term temperature records are analyzed, we centered and scaled (i.e., the z-score) water quality measurements on a per-station basis. This provides a robust and commonly scaled measurement to explore this data for long-term trends. State-wide aggregation of all lakes showed increasing temperature, chlorophyll a, and total nitrogen. Interestingly, total phosphorus is showing a decline, perhaps reflecting the management focus on phosphorus reductions. While yearly trends are useful, they do mask month-to-month variability differences across sites. Additionally, while most sites track the yearly trend in decreasing water quality, there are bright spots with a few sites improving over the 25 years. Contrary to previously reported analyses that show relatively stable water quality at the regional scale, our analysis shows that long-term water quality trends within Rhode Island show some parameters improving while others are in decline. Importantly, this analysis also points out the value and importance of data from long-term monitoring programs, like URI Watershed Watch, for identifying trends in environmental condition.

  • The Importance of Nutrient Supply by Fish Excretion and Watershed Streams to a Eutrophic Lake Varies with Temporal Scale Over 19 Years
    Tanner Williamson

    The Importance of Nutrient Supply by Fish Excretion and Watershed Streams to a Eutrophic Lake Varies with Temporal Scale Over 19 Years

    Tanner J. Williamson1, Michael J. Vanni1, María J. González1, William H. Renwick2, Mary T. Bremigan3, and Joseph D. Conroy4

    1Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; 2Department of Geography, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; 3Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; 4Ohio Department of Natural Resources – Division of Wildlife, Columbus, Ohio

    Animals can transform and translocate nutrients at ecologically relevant rates, likely contributing to eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems by mobilizing otherwise unavailable nutrients. Yet we know little about how animal-mediated nutrient cycling compares to abiotic nutrient sources over long periods and across multiple timescales. To address this, we conducted a 19-year study in a eutrophic reservoir (Acton Lake, Ohio, USA), examining nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs from watershed streams versus excretion by an abundant fish (gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum) across a range of temporal scales.

    Watershed loading was the dominant nutrient source at annual timescales. However, fish excretion frequently exceeded watershed loading summed over the growing season and over summer, when algal biomass is highest and algal nutrient limitation is most severe. Fish excretion was a more consistent nutrient source, with much lower temporal variability in both supply rate and N:P ratio. Indeed, aggregate nutrient supply (watershed loading plus fish excretion) was much less variable for both loading rate and N:P ratio. Fish excretion also supplied nutrients at a much lower N:P ratio than the watershed.

    In eutrophic lakes, where fish biomass is often high, fish excretion can strongly influence algal biomass and community composition. Eutrophication management efforts should consider removal of benthivorous fish, like gizzard shad, in addition to other watershed management practices to improve water quality. Future climate change will likely modulate the interplay between fish- and watershed-mediated nutrient dynamics by altering the geographic distribution of detritivorous fish and the frequency and severity of storm and drought events.

 

B2: Macrophyte and Periphyton Monitoring and Management
Moderator: Mark Rosenkranz, Lake Oswego Corporation, Lake Oswego, Oregon

  • Wild Rice AWQMS Project Case Study
    Nancy Schuldt

    Wild Rice AWQMS Project Case Study

    Nancy Schuldt1 and Alex Heppner2

    1Fond du Lac Environmental Program, Cloquet, Minnesota; 2AWQMS, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Native people have been harvesting rice for many hundreds of years in the upper Midwest; it is essential to their subsistence culture, diet, and traditions. With multiple stressors potentially impacting wild rice, tribes would greatly benefit from simple, straightforward tools to manage wild rice data and facilitate data analysis to examine how these stressors are affecting wild rice, both temporally and spatially. Because of natural annual fluctuations in wild rice stands, wild rice must be monitored over multiple years to encompass this natural variability. Some tribes and tribal agencies in Region 5 currently collect data on wild rice waters, including water quality and sediment quality, stand density and abundance, but the methods, parameters measured, and monitoring frequency are not uniform.

    Tribal Wild Rice Production and Water Quality Data Management and Analysis Project was launched in October of 2013 and is ongoing. The main goal was to provide a single online information system for consolidating, vetting, tracking and analyzing such data across tribal boundaries. Another major goal was to provide water quality data to the EPA’s Water Quality Exchange (WQX) while also providing insight into how EPA could better model such vegetation production data. This presentation will walk through a case study using real data and simultaneously demonstrate all of the items that were implemented in order to achieve the goals of the project.

  • Early Operational Use of ProcellaCOR for Selective Control of Invasive Aquatic Plants
    Mark Heilman

    Early Operational Use of ProcellaCOR for Selective Control of Invasive Aquatic Plants

    Mark Heilman

    SePRO, Carmel, Indiana

    ProcellaCOR™ Aquatic Herbicide (a.i. florpyrauxifen-benzyl) received its USEPA registration in February 2018. It is the first new herbicide approved by USEPA with an aquatic use as part of its initial registration since 1986 (Sonar®). The EPA Reduced Risk technology has novel, low-rate (100× lower than older technology), selective, systemic activity on major US aquatic invasive weeds including hydrilla, Eurasian and hybrid Eurasian watermilfoil, floating hearts, parrotfeather, and water hyacinth. This presentation will highlight results of quantitative vegetation assessments (point intercept and hydroacoustic) and dissipation monitoring of early operational management with ProcellaCOR. The field studies during the summer of 2018 are being collaboratively conducted by private and public research teams to document selective control outcomes with the new herbicide across a number of major US invasive weed species.

  • Bridging the Data Gap Between Spring Nutrient Input and Summer Periphyton Growth via Bay Sediment Delivery and Retention Analysis in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho
    Randi Notte

    Bridging the Data Gap Between Spring Nutrient Input and Summer Periphyton Growth Via Bay Sediment Delivery and Retention Analysis in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho

    Randi Notte1, Frank Wilhelm1, and Craig Cooper2

    1University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Moscow, Idaho; 2Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho

    Lake littoral zones are key focus areas to predict change in lake trophic status due to their proximity to incoming sources of sediment and associated nutrients. Here, periphyton are excellent candidates as indicators to evaluate nutrient loading because they are stationary, and their growth reflects the arrival of nutrients to them, unlike free-floating algae that can obtain nutrients from different parts of the water column. In a study in 2017 of periphyton communities in six northern bays of Coeur d’Alene Lake (CDA, Idaho, USA) to test the hypothesis that their growth and density would reflect bay watershed disturbance by human activity, which also varied among the bays, we found similar growth patterns and climax densities which did not support our hypothesis. Our results also were inconsistent with those from another local lake in which rapid periphyton growth and high climax densities were directly related to human impact in the sub-watersheds. To further investigate the periphyton response to nutrient loading in Lake CDA in 2018, we characterized sediment and nutrient loads to two end-member bays (low and high human watershed disturbance) that were similar in bathymetry and shoreline housing density. We also characterized periphyton growth and retention time in each bay to explore if retention could explain the differences observed in 2017. Variation in nutrient load to bays of Lake CDA may be masked by different bay-specific retention regimes, thereby explaining the similar periphyton responses. This has important implications of how to make periphyton growth an effective indicator of loads to lakes.

  • The Life History of Nectopsyche albida and Its Dietary Habits in Lake Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, with a Focus on Predation on the Invasive Eurasian Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
    Stephanie Estell

    The Life History of Nectopsyche albida and Its Dietary Habits in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho, With a Focus on Predation on Invasive Eurasian Milfoil

    Stephanie Estell1, Ben Scofield2, and Frank M. Wilhelm1

    1University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho; 2Lake Management Department, Coeur d’Alene Tribe, Plummer, Idaho

    Invasive Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and a hybrid watermilfoil (M. spicatum x M. sibiricum) can be a nuisance in water bodies for recreational swimmers and boaters and reduce the diversity of native macrophytes. Lake Management Department staff of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe have noticed substantial damage to M. spicatum in areas where the caddisfly, Nectopsyche albida, was present in high abundance. This led us to formulate the hypothesis that N. albida is a natural herbivore of M. spicatum and the hybrid watermilfoil. Because these observations occurred in Coeur d’Alene Lake, this would be a range extension for N. albida, and its life history pattern within this range extension is unknown. We first examined growth, instar succession, and emergence to establish baseline parameters. Concurrently we examined the diet of N. albida using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to determine its food source. We also undertook feeding trials to examine preference between two species of macrophytes (M. spicatum and E. candaadensis) and trials to determine rates of consumption. Life history analysis showed that N. albida was uni-voltine, while stable isotope analyses revealed it consumed the macrophytes. The feeding trials seemed to show preference for one of the macrophytes, and suggested consumption rates were approximately two leaves per individual per day. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between life history, density, and consumption of M. spicatum to determine if N. albida could serve as a biological control agent.

 

B3: Hydrology and Hydrodynamics
Moderator: Victoria Chraibi, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas

  • The Role of Morphometry and Hydrology in Promoting Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms in Reservoirs
    Reed Green

    The Role of Morphometry and Hydrology in Promoting Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms in Reservoirs

    Reed Green1, Anne Hoos2, Alan Wilson3, and Victor Roland2

    1US Geological Survey, Little Rock, Arkansas; 2US Geological Survey, Nashville, Tennessee; 3Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

    Reservoirs store “legacy” phosphorus in trapped sediment that washes off the surrounding landscape. Historically, internal phosphorus loads in reservoirs have been considered “decimal dust” relative to the large external loads delivered from the contributing watershed. Internal loading occurs under anoxic conditions when stored phosphorus is released from bed sediments and transported to the photic zone during mixing events which promotes algal growth and blooms during the summer thermal stratification season. In this study, the US Geological Survey examined the use of six water-body morphometric measures, hydrology based on a flushing rate, and external nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) loads and concentrations as predictors of Secchi depth and concentrations of chlorophyll a and microcystin in 114 natural lakes, 183 headwater reservoirs, and 61 reservoirs downstream of an upstream control structure. All lakes and reservoirs are greater than 0.1 km2 and are located within the eastern United States (National Hydrography Data Set, major river basins 1 and 2). Results will provide a basis for examining the susceptibility of natural lakes, headwater reservoirs, and downstream reservoirs to eutrophication and susceptibility to harmful algal blooms.

  • Small Reservoir Water Level Management
    Greg Dutson

    Small Reservoir Water Level Management

    Clayton Morlock1, Greg Dutson2, and Tim Newton2

    1Canary Systems, New London, New Hampshire; 2Canary Systems, Chattanooga, Tennessee

    Tools are discussed for monitoring and controlling water levels at small reservoirs with a case study provided for Pleasant Lake of New London, New Hampshire. The level of complexity of the monitoring systems depends on the criticality of maintaining the desired level and the necessity of controlling the discharge rate below the dam. In this case study, automated monitoring techniques are used for observing water levels, discharge gate openings amounts, and weather (precipitation and temperature). Using these measurements in combination with readily available regional rainfall and historical hydrologic information, both water recharge and discharge rates can be approximated. Bathymetric surveys are used to determine holding capacities at various pond levels. Remote sensing data from satellites can be used to observe factors that affect recharge such as soil saturation and snow cover for the drainage area. With a good hydrologic model and weather predictions, informed preemptive drawdowns can be made to mitigate adverse effects from severe weather events or spring thaws before they happen. Regulatory compliance for dam safety can be facilitated by using the stored monitoring system data. As more data is gathered, the hydrologic models can be further refined to improve operational predictions. Automated control of pond levels can be incorporated with safeguards put in place for manual override. Information is stored in a central georeferenced database to facilitate analysis and display. Lake health and safety data can be stored in the same georeferenced database. Lastly, information and procedures can be stored and implemented for an emergency action plan.

  • Hydrodynamic Simulation of Lake Mead to Inform Future Drinking Water Treatment Needs
    Deena Giffen

    Hydrodynamic Simulation of Lake Mead to Inform Future Drinking Water Treatment Needs

    Deena Hannoun Giffen and Todd Tietjen

    Southern Nevada Water Authority, Las Vegas, Nevada

    Lake Mead is a large reservoir along the Colorado River that supplies water for drinking and irrigation to nearly 30 million users. Persistent drought conditions have caused a sharp decline in the elevation of Lake Mead, and consequently, a new drinking water intake was constructed at a lower elevation to bolster the water supply to the Las Vegas Valley. As lake levels decline, sediment coming downstream from the Colorado River has the potential to enter the drinking water intake, causing turbidity issues and thus affecting water treatment. To plan for future treatment scenarios, we use the 3D hydrodynamic and water quality model AEM3D to study the effect of lake levels on sediment loads at the Southern Nevada Water Authority’s drinking water intake in Lake Mead. Sediment particle sizes and concentrations were determined by fitting a distribution to data collected upstream during high flows. These simulated particle distributions are transported downstream using the hydrodynamic component of AEM3D, and the concentration at the drinking water intake is recorded daily. Simulations were performed over a period of 10 years to quantify seasonal variations, meteorological effects, and long-term effects on the lake. The output of the full AEM3D model is then emulated using a simpler model, which will eventually serve as the initial condition for a water treatment plant model.

  • Watershed Management-Expanding the Nonpoint Source Horizon for Better Results
    Russ Gibson

    Watershed Management-Expanding the Nonpoint Source Horizon for Better Results

    Russ Gibson

    Coldwater Consulting, LLC, Galena, Ohio

    Habitat alteration, hydromodification, silt/sediment and nutrients are the four highest magnitude nonpoint source causes of aquatic life use impairment in the state of Ohio. The two most common causes are hydromodification and habitat alteration! Yet watershed management for many folks consists of trying to encourage farmers to implement best management practices such as filter strips, cover crops and others. Despite decades of state and federal funding for source reduction BMP’s, we have yet to see the kinds of pollutant reductions that are needed to meet Ohio’s water quality goals.

    State agencies and local watershed groups spend a great deal of time (and money) developing water quality plans such as TMDL’s and 9-element watershed plans. A key component to both processes is identifying those critical areas within a watershed that are contributing disproportionate loads of pollutants. These plans also identify those areas where direct modifications to natural flow such as lowhead dams and channelization further impair a stream’s assimilative capacities. Focusing implementation on all of these critical areas and marrying the right practice to the problem are critical if we are to maximize water quality benefits.

    This presentation encourages broadening the suite of watershed management activity that must be brought to bear if we are to achieve improved water quality. The decades-old emphasis on source reduction agricultural BMP’s is good and provides an important tool for engaging farmers. However, effective watershed management requires a comprehensive approach, one that includes implementing activities such as removing lowhead dams, breeching dikes and levees, capturing nutrient laden runoff in restored wetlands and others. Mr. Gibson will share success stories and examples where this comprehensive approach resulted in considerable water quality improvement.

 

B4: Algal Toxins
Moderator: Ellen Preece, Robertson-Bryan, Inc., Elk Grove, California

  • Toxic Toledo and Maumee Microcystis: Was the Unprecedented cHAB in 2017 Lake or River Derived?
    Douglas Kane

    Toxic Toledo and Maumee Microcystis: Was the Unprecedented cHAB in 2017 Lake or River Derived?

    Douglas Kane1, Thomas Bridgeman2, Robert McKay3, Timothy Davis3, George Bullerjahn3, Gregory Boyer4, and William Cody

    1Defiance College, Defiance, Ohio; 2University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio; 3Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio; 4SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, New York

    Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABS) have been resurgent in Lake Erie during the past two decades, however; less is known about the occurrence and toxicity of cHABS in the Maumee River. Although, previous studies in the last decade have found abundant cyanobacteria in the river, few found appreciable amounts of toxin-producing strains or toxins in the river. However, in September 2017, a microcystins-producing bloom of Microcystis occurred in downtown Toledo on the Maumee River. We used a Fluoroprobe to determine algal biomass at a coarse taxonomic resolution, ELISA to test total microcystins of river water samples, and LC-MS analysis to determine the presence of three microcystin congeners (MC-LR, YR, and RR). Samples taken during the large late-September cHAB bloom in the Maumee River near downtown Toledo possessed measurable microcystins (with MC-LR the predominant congener), with 9 out of 13 sites sampled exceeding the Recreational Public Health Advisory level (6 µg/L total microcystins) and 6 of 13 sites sampled exceeding the Elevated Recreational Public Health Advisory (20 µg/L total microcystins). Herein, we elucidate whether this highly toxic bloom was of lacustrine or riverine origin using genomic data.

  • Maximum Microcystin Concentrations in Western Lake Erie Predicted by Early Season Nutrient Concentrations
    Darren Bade

    Maximum Microcystin Concentrations in Western Lake Erie Predicted by Early Season Nutrient Concentrations

    Darren Bade

    Kent State University, Kent, Ohio

    Microcystin has been a primary concern related to harmful algal blooms in western Lake Erie. While the extent of algal blooms in Lake Erie has been well predicted by models using spring nutrient loads, no annual predictions related to bloom toxicity exist. Moreover, a large bloom extent does not necessarily equate to high bloom toxicity. Using data collected by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency at 25 sites in western Lake Erie between 2011 and 2015, microcystin concentrations were compared with nutrient concentrations to explore possible relationships and build predictive models. This data set, which contains nearly 350 observations, confirmed a basic relationship between algal biomass (as Chlorophyll a) and microcystin concentration (Pearson’s r = 0.67, p < 0.001). The maximum concentration of total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphate, or nitrate at a site early in the season (before July) explained a large portion of the variation in the maximum microcystin concentration which occurs later in the season (e.g., for TP, R2 = 0.70). The model was used to predict microcystin concentrations at eight sites in 2016. In that year, the model tended to underestimate the maximum microcystin concentrations, but all sites except one were within the prediction errors. Other qualitative aspects of the data set may also aid in predicting toxin dynamics. When ammonium is present at detectable concentration, microcystin tends to be low or undetectable. Microcystin concentrations tend to peak when nitrate is still present and then declines after nitrate becomes undetectable.

  • Cyanobacterial Blooms and Toxin Production in Lower Green Bay, Lake Michigan
    Gina LaLiberte

    Cyanobacterial Blooms and Toxin Production in Lower Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Gina LaLiberte1, Sarah Bartlett2, Erin Houghton2, Donalea Dinsmore1, Todd Miller3, and Dawn Perkins4

    1Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin; 2NEW Water Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District, Green Bay, Wisconsin; 3Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 4Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur frequently in Green Bay. Surveys of toxin production by cyanobacterial blooms in the bay have been limited, despite Green Bay’s listing as a Great Lakes Area of Concern under beneficial use impairments (BUIs) which include Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae and Beach Closings or Recreational Restrictions. In order to assess the Beach Closings BUI, we have investigated cyanobacterial community composition, toxin production, pigments, and water quality parameters at 2 beach sites, the mouth of the Fox River, and 5 offshore sites in Lower Green Bay since 2016. We will present seasonal trends in the algal and cyanobacterial community and cyanobacterial toxin production, and their implications for primary contact recreation based on draft US EPA cyanotoxin swimming advisory guidelines.

  • Safety and Decontamination Protocols When Sampling Blooms of Cyanobacteria: What’s Being Done in the Real World, and What Some Institutions are Requesting to Approve Research
    Frank Wilhelm

    Safety and Decontamination Protocols When Sampling Blooms of Cyanobacteria: What’s Being Done in the Real World, and What Some Institutions are Requesting to Approve Research

    Frank M. Wilhelm and Sarah H. Burnet

    Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho

    Sampling blooms of cyanobacteria for the analysis of toxins presents a conundrum. A bloom could be toxic, in which case some safety measures should be employed to protect those taking samples, however, beyond wearing gloves, additional PPE on a hot day in August becomes cumbersome and, in some cases, i.e., full-face respirator, downright unbearable, or dangerous if operating a motorboat. This is compounded by the fact that the status of the samples (toxic or non-toxic) is unknown a priori. Because we were requested by our Institutional Biosafety Committee, which reviews proposals, to develop a decontamination protocol and complete a biosafety manual before students could drive a boat on a lake with a history of toxic blooms of cyanobacteria, for a project unrelated to cyanobacteria, we surveyed individuals around the US that are currently actively engaged in HABs research to learn of their PPE procedures and decontamination protocols. Overwhelmingly, use of gloves ‘when it looked bad’ was the only PPE measure employed. For decontamination of gear (boats, trailers, etc.), draining and drying (exposure to sun and UV) were the only procedures used. None of these procedures were documented in a citable format. Our goal here is to engage the audience to extend our sample size, to produce a note in LRM that provides a citable source for those required to complete PPE and biosafety manuals to work on lakes/reservoirs with known blooms of toxic cyanobacteria.

 

B5: Shallow Lakes
Moderator: Robert Kirschner, Chicago Botanic Garden, Glencoe, Illinois

  • Part I: Improving the Water Quality of an Urban Shallow Lake and then Navigating the Response
    William Bartodziej

    Part I: Improving the Water Quality of an Urban Shallow Lake and then Navigating the Response

    Bill Bartodziej1 and Keith Pilgrim2

    1Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District, Little Canada, Minnesota; 2Barr Engineering, Edina, Minnesota

    Kohlman (36 ha, mean depth of 1.2 m) is the northernmost lake of the Phalen Chain of Lakes in the Twin Cities, Minnesota. In 2008, Kohlman was placed on the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency’s 303(d) Impair Waters List for total phosphorus (P), due to a ten-year growing season mean of 98 μg/l. Mass balance modeling suggested that reductions of 95 kg (22%) of P from watershed loading and 116 kg (88%) from internal loading would bring P concentrations down below 60 μg/l (state standard) in the lake. In 2009, the Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District (RWMWD) began to implement watershed and in-lake P management practices. Two doses of aluminum sulfate and sodium aluminate were applied to the lake bottom substrate by using a barge. In 2009, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) biomass was estimated at 180 kg/ha. Biomass over 90 kg/ha often has negative impacts to water quality. Through commercial fishing, baited box netting, and management of nursery areas, the carp population was reduced to 45 kg/ha. In addition, several large stormwater management projects were completed in the Kohlman watershed. Collectively, these efforts have resulted in seasonal means for P, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth being below the standards set for Minnesota shallow lakes. With the improved water transparency, aquatic plants responded by increasing in abundance. So much so that the RWMWD conducted experimental aquatic plant harvesting operations. Lakeshore owners are now grappling with the increased aquatic plant cover, and the RWMWD is determining how to best support thoughtful and effective aquatic plant management.

  • Part II: Evaluating the Effect and Potential Benefits of Mechanical Harvesting on Aquatic Plants and Phosphorus in an Urban Shallow Lake
    Keith Pilgrim

    Part II: Evaluating the Effect and Potential Benefits of Mechanical Harvesting on Aquatic Plants and Phosphorus in an Urban Shallow Lake

    Keith Pilgrim1 and Bill Bartodziej2

    1Barr Engineering, Edina, Minnesota; 2Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District, Little Canada, Minnesota

    As lake managers we want to want to know with some level of certainty what the outcome may be with a given lake management action. At Kohlman Lake, Oakdale, Minnesota, an extensive and dense population of aquatic plants became established with increased lake clarity—the outcome of several management activities. In order to manage the outcome (plant growth) of previous management activities, the Ramsey Washington Metro Watershed District agreed to conduct limited mechanical plant harvesting on a trial basis. Beyond aesthetics, which is often the goal of harvesting, there are several questions that this current study intended to address: 1) How much phosphorus is removed from the lake system with harvesting—can we view harvesting as a phosphorus BMP similar to watershed controls and in-lake treatments? 2) Is there an effect on in-lake phosphorus concentrations and other water quality parameters with limited harvesting, 3) For this particular harvesting program, was there an effect on aquatic plant growth? 4) What is the contribution of aquatic plants to the overall phosphorus mass balance for Kohlman Lake. The results of this study will be discussed, including some the field and laboratory measurement methods and the modeling approach employed to analyze the data and develop an overall understanding of the Kohlman Lake system.

  • Part III: Bridging the Gap between Public Expectations and Realistic Management Solutions of Shallow Minnesota Lakes
    Lyndsey Provos

    Part III: Bridging the Gap between Public Expectations and Realistic Management Solutions of Shallow Minnesota Lakes

    Lyndsey Provos and Bill Bartoziej

    Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District, Little Canada, Minnesota

    The Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District (RWMWD) is located in Eastern Ramsey County and Western Washington County, Minnesota encompassing 65 square miles, 12 cities, and 20 lakes. RWMWD is charged with meeting the state water quality standards for Minnesota surface water. After intensive lake and watershed management, Lake Kohlman was moved from a turbid to a clear water state. Although there was a significant improvement in water quality, the increase in aquatic plant and filamentous algal growth caused public conflict. It seemed that water quality became secondary. There was disconnect between residents’ expectations and the reality of how healthy shallow lakes function. Water skiing, swimming, sandy bottoms with little aquatic plant cover do not mesh well with Lake Kohlman in a clear water state. We chose to create a video as an educational tool to help communicate our message. In the video, we have local experts explain basic shallow lake ecology, clear water and turbid states, the difference between deep and shallow lakes, and how management must balance realistic lake use with preserving lake health. We have a local lakeshore owner tell her story. We have incorporated interesting animation and underwater and drone shots to help tell the story. We will show the video during the presentation and discuss how this message has been received by the public.

  • Floating Wetlands for Bulkhead Impact Mitigation in Urban Lakes
    Rob Zisette

    Floating Wetlands for Bulkhead Impact Mitigation in Urban Lakes

    Rob Zisette

    Herrera Environmental Consultants, Seattle, Washington

    Bulkheads and other hardened shorelines in urban lakes can protect property from erosion, but the increased wave reflection caused by their presence erodes lake sediment, resulting in offshore sediment drift and a loss of emergent plant habitat. Sediment suspension and drift to deeper waters can impact lake water quality by increasing internal phosphorus loading. Loss of emergent vegetation can impact fish and wildlife, including endangered Chinook salmon. Green shoreline initiatives by Seattle and others promote removal of bulkheads to create natural beaches costing approximately $600 per linear foot. Floating wetlands are an effective alternative to bulkhead removal at about half the cost. This presentation will summarize bulkhead impacts, compare commercially-available floating wetland systems, describe their potential water quality and habitat benefits, and present alternative designs for the installation of floating wetlands along bulkheads in urban lakes.

 

B6: Innovative Modeling (WMAO)
The Water Management Association of Ohio (WMAO) is offering this session concurrent with the NALMS Symposium and it is open to NALMS attendees.

  • The Role of Water Management and Climate Change Uncertainty: A Case Study in the Maumee River Watershed
    Haley Kujawa

    The Role of Water Management and Climate Change Uncertainty: A Case Study in the Maumee River Watershed

    Haley Kujawa

    The Ohio State University, Chesapeake, Virginia

    Planning resilient water management in the face of climate change is a problem everywhere. A common approach of incorporating climate change analysis into watershed management consists of using a single hydrological model driven by temperature and precipitation data from an ensemble of general circulation models (GCMs). While this method may capture the range of future climate predictions, it does not account for bias introduced from the hydrological model. This study highlights the uncertainties associated with independently set-up process-based models used in climate change analysis. This work was done on the Maumee River Watershed, which is a priority for reducing Lake Erie’s harmful algal blooms. Five Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) configurations for the Maumee watershed were set-up and calibrated by independent research groups who were allowed freedom to retain differences in model structure, inputs, management, and parameterizations. All models performed well when compared with observational data of discharge and nutrient loads. We then drove these SWAT models with daily temperature and precipitation predictions from an ensemble of six GCMs. The results suggest that the models generally agree on changes in discharge, and yet future water quality shows a large range of uncertainty and cannot be fully explained by the changes in precipitation and discharge. While numerous studies have used a single SWAT model with an ensemble of GCMs for future water quality prediction in the Maumee River watershed, this study highlights the importance of uncertainty derived from the SWAT model.

  • Assessing Uncertainty in Hydrological Models Within the Maumee River Watershed: The Role of Parameters and Farm Management Assumptions
    Anna Apostel

    Assessing Uncertainty in Hydrological Models Within the Maumee River Watershed: The Role of Parameters and Farm Management Assumptions

    Anna Apostel

    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    The need for water quality models has been at the forefront of recent discussions about meeting Lake Erie targets for nutrient loading. Models can expand the predictive capacity for a watershed, especially where there is limited monitoring data, and therefore can be a powerful tool. However, a key limitation for interpreting model results is that some models, called deterministic models, produce one prediction without placing it within the context of uncertainty bounds. This is the case with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Despite successful use of SWAT in several policy-relevant projects in the Maumee River watershed, including projects comparing outputs from five separate SWAT models, stakeholders are asking modelers to put their results in the context of uncertainty or confidence in those results. This project aims to assess the role of two separate drivers of uncertainty: parameter uncertainty and farm management assumptions. The SWAT model for the Maumee watershed has been updated to include hydrologic response unit (HRU) discretization focused on near field level delineation, allowing for direct incorporation of spatially-realistic management practices. We identified 1) a suite of parameter sets representing a range plausible values for commonly calibrated model parameters; and 2) a suite of farm management scenarios based on common model representations of real world practices and historical management trends. The model was run over each unique combination of parameter and management scenarios and model output variance was measured as impacted by variation in parameters and management representations. This variance in model output at several scales allows us to begin to quantify the magnitude and characterize the source of potential uncertainty. This provides valuable insight into where our models can be improved and how results should best be interpreted for management and policy development the region.

  • Multiple Models Assess Options for Reaching Lake Erie’s Phosphorus Reduction Targets
    Margaret Kalcic

    Multiple Models Assess Options for Reaching Lake Erie’s Phosphorus Reduction Targets

    Margaret Kalcic

    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    In 2016 the United States and Canada formally agreed to target reductions of phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie with the intention of alleviating the lake’s eutrophication. This included a 40% reduction from 2008 levels of March–July total phosphorus and dissolved reactive phosphorus loading from the Maumee River watershed. A key remaining question is what can be done in Lake Erie watersheds to meet these targets. Specifically, what land management options and rates of implementation will be needed to reach this 40% reduction? Here we will highlight results from an interdisciplinary research collaboration in which a stakeholder advisory group assisted in identifying feasible and desirable conservation options for the watershed, which were in turn tested in multiple models of the Maumee watershed. We find that multiple pathways (suites of conservation practices) move towards targets, with the potential for mixing/matching a variety of practices given producer preferences. Models agreed that widespread adoption would be needed, and the targets for total phosphorus would be more readily attainable than those for dissolved phosphorus.

  • Power of Volunteer Water Quality Data in Examining Regional Water Quality in SW Ohio, 2017
    Michael Miller

    Power of Volunteer Water Quality Data in Examining Regional Water Quality in SW Ohio, 2017

    Michael Miller

    Rivers Unlimited, Green Umbrella Watershed Group, Cincinnati, Ohio

    Organized in the Watershed Action Group of our regional sustainability organization, Green Umbrella, we have developed 4 programs using OEPA Level 2 methodologies to evaluate impacts of effluent and eutrophicational nutrients on surface waters of Greater Cincinnati. We monitor 220 sites monthly at the same time on the same date by 4 groups (Lower Great Miami River Water Quality Program of Rivers Unlimited, lower Little Miami River Saturday Stream Snapshot of Greenacres Foundation, Mill Creek watershed with Mill Creek Alliance, and Butler County Stream Team supported by Miami University Environmental Studies Program and Butler County Stormwater District. We monitor Total Phosphorus, Nitrate-N, Conductivity, Turbidity, pH, E. coli and total coliform density, in vivo chlorophyll, and optical whiteners. Using OEPA water quality criteria we generate a Water Quality Rank for each parameter on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (good) averaged over 6 parameters in common we can talk about the quality of each site the averages the ranks for 9 dates × 6 parameters = 54 determinations per year. With 5–10 sites in the mainstem our rivers are ranked from 220–540 determinations. In 2017, the Whitewater River was the cleanest, the Little Miami second, the Great Miami third, and the Mill Creek best in the upper 7 miles and worst in the lower 18 miles. The pattern is related to land use and effluent loading primarily with TP, Nitrate, Conductivity and E. coli being the most revealing. Great Miami is loaded with N-rich nutrients from agriculture and effluent improving downriver. The Little Miami is challenged by WWTP effluent at numerous sites along our reach. The Mill Creek is degraded in lower river by effluent, CSO & SSO runoff with pulsed flows. The Whitewater River has excellent water quality, although it is receiving some violations recently.

 

B7: Contaminants (WMAO)
The Water Management Association of Ohio (WMAO) is offering this session concurrent with the NALMS Symposium and it is open to NALMS attendees.

  • Decentralized Treatment of Sewage Flows
    Rakesh Govind

    Decentralized Treatment of Sewage Flows

    Rakesh Govind

    University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio

    The world is running out of fresh water, and current methods of treating wastewater at centralized treatment plants and disposing the treated water into creeks/rivers results in sending the used freshwater, generally obtained from ground water, into the ocean, where it becomes salt water. Decentralized treatment promotes local wastewater treatment with the treated water being used for irrigation, which returns the water back to the ground. In this paper, methods for decentralized treatment of sewage will be presented.

  • Toxicity Impact Assessment of PFOS and PFOA
    Joshua Glass

    Toxicity Impact Assessment of PFOS and PFOA

    Joshua Glass

    Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS), a class of toxic and persistent emerging contaminants, have led to rising concerns about health effects of drinking water contaminated by certain PFASs. The problem extends from groundwater near sites impacted by the repeated use of firefighting aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and surface water sources. Numerous remediation efforts have been proposed for contaminated sites; however, little is known about the toxicological effects of the contamination. Data was collected through a comprehensive literature review of research that analyzed PFAS effective doses for various adverse health symptoms. Using methodology and calculations derived from the USEtox tool, the data collected was analyzed to obtain comparable toxic units (CTU) for PFOA and PFOS using two scenarios. The first scenario assumed that the full concentration of contaminates was ingested by the exposed populations and the second scenario calculated the intake assuming the contamination infiltrated the Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer contaminating the water supply to the city of Dayton, Ohio. CTUs values were calculated for both scenarios using varying concentrations of PFAS contamination.

  • PFOS Fate and Transport Modeling Using Numeric and Analytic Models
    Ramoane Jordan

    PFOS Fate and Transport Modeling Using Numeric and Analytic Models

    Ramoane Jordan

    Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of emerging water contaminants, have been widely used in numerous industrial and commercial applications since the 1950s. Due to rising concerns about health effects related to certain PFASs, a particular application to note is the use of PFOS in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). Historical reports have shown a correlation between higher concentrations of PFASs and sites impacted by the repeated use of AFFF through fire training and performance testing, thus prompting a need for quantifying contamination. Numeric and analytic modeling tools were utilized, with distribution properties of PFOS attained from literature and physiochemical properties of the subsurface, to simulate PFOS transport under a fire training area. Model results provided information about plume dispersion, retardation, and transformation. The information from this modeling exercise provide information needed for remediation decision-making and risk analysis.

  • The Impact, Fate, and Viability of Bacillus globigii Spores and MS2 Bacteriophage Injected into Activated Sludge
    Willie Harper

    The Impact, Fate, and Viability of Bacillus globigii Spores and MS2 Bacteriophage Injected into Activated Sludge

    Willie Harper

    Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Introduction of biocontaminants into the water cycle may pose a threat to public safety. Biocontaminated wastewater could result from accidental or intentional contamination incidents, including wash down water in the aftermath of an attack, as well as hospital waste. The impacts, fate, and viability of these biocontaminants within and after biological treatment processes are key concerns for addressing disposal of biocontaminated wastewaters. This work used two biocontaminants, B. globigii, a surrogate for B. anthracis, and MS2 bacteriophage, a common surrogate for noroviruses. B. globigii spores and MS2 bacteriophage did not cause statistically significant differences in the maximum rate of O2 uptake, and they did not discernably alter the shape of the respirometric profiles over a wide range of initial concentrations. COD and nitrogen removal were not negatively impacted by B. globigii spores or MS2. However, when B. globigii spores were added without washing off the ethanol, the relative cumulative O2 uptake was significantly higher in two of four experiments at a spore concentration of 2 × 105 CFU/mL. Overall, these results showed that B. globigii spores and MS2 bacteriophage do not interfere with microbial respiration; however, ethanol caused initial inhibition. This result could be significant if biocontaminants are introduced into a treatment plant with an organic co-solvent. Typically, biocontaminants were present both in the bulk and in the solid phase. Plating and microscopic analysis of effluent samples indicated that both MS2 and B. globigii spores remained viable after exposure to activated sludge in batch experiments. When B. globigii spores were injected into the pilot plant system at 3.7 × 105 cfu/ml, samples collected over 7 weeks all showed the presence of germinated B. globigii cells regardless of collection location (i.e., primary effluent, activated sludge at different locations, and secondary effluent). The germination percentage (i.e., the number of germinated spores relative to the total number of spores in a given sample) was between 1–25% across all samples and generally increased with time, suggesting the formation of new, biochemically active daughter cells.

 

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

Refreshment Break / Exhibits Open / Poster Viewing

 

3:30 pm – 4:40 pm
Concurrent Session C

C1: Large Data Sets and Long-Term Monitoring
Moderator: Kiyoko Yokota, Biological Field Station – SUNY Oneonta, Cooperstown, New York

  • The Use and Limitations of Large Data Sets in Evaluating the Health of Percid Stocks in select New York waters 1991–2016
    Justin Hulbert

    The Use and Limitations of Large Data Sets in Evaluating the Health of Percid Stocks in Select New York Waters 1991–2016

    J.R. Hulbert1, D.S. Stich1, and S.M. Wells2

    1Biology Department, State University of New York College at Oneonta, Oneonta, New York; 2New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region 4 Fisheries, Stamford, New York

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) are a common cool-water predator-prey combination found in lakes and reservoirs throughout North America and are actively managed to support fisheries throughout New York State (NYS). Fish wellbeing in most fish populations is strongly correlated to growth rates, change in body composition, condition, and in many examples relative weight (Wr) may be a more robust predictor of fecundity than that of growth. The ability to quantify and model the relationship between fish weight and length is essential for effective fisheries management. However, estimation of Wr is often difficult in data-limited populations. We used Bayesian hierarchical methods with data from 1991–2016 to fit Wr models to weight-length data for walleye and yellow perch collected from various waters in southeastern NYS. The model also provides regional estimates of drivers of Wr. Walleye relative weights (Wr) were similar between waterbodies, but relative weights (Wr) of yellow perch caught was notably smaller in Canadarago Lake than in other lakes. On a regional scale, annual Wr for Walleye increased was 0.79 to 1.04, and Wr for yellow perch decreased and was 0.73 to 0.84. Future work on Percids in this region will investigate number of factors that influence weight-length relationships.

  • Water Quality in Lake Mead During Extended Drought: Why Has There Been So Little Change?
    Todd Tietjen

    Water Quality in Lake Mead During Extended Drought: Why Has There Been So Little Change?

    Todd Tietjen

    Southern Nevada Water Authority, Las Vegas, Nevada

    Lake Mead has been influenced by the drought occurring throughout the Colorado River Basin since the year 2000. While inflows have varied over this period the overall direction has been down resulting in significant decreases in the lake surface elevation and water storage. Despite this ongoing decrease in water the water quality in Lake Mead has been remarkably stable. Thermal stratification patterns have remained consistent with complete mixing of the water column every 2 years and partial mixing every year. Specific conductance values have been influenced by basin wide shifts in salinity more than drought over this period. Nutrient concentrations have remained within a fairly narrow range owing to the stability of nutrients entering the lake through the Colorado River and continued high level of wastewater treatment in the Las Vegas Valley. These stable nutrient concentrations have produced stable chlorophyll a concentrations and high Secchi disk transparency. While the active management of nutrient loading by the Las Vegas Wash has played a significant role in maintaining high water quality, the short retention time, rapid flushing, of the reservoir is likely to have added to the stability of the system.

  • Kentucky Lake (USA) is Undergoing a “Change of State”: ‘Tipping Points’ in Water Quality May Require New Approaches for Lake Management
    Susan Hendricks

    Kentucky Lake (USA) is Undergoing a “Change of State”: ‘Tipping Points’ in Water Quality May Require New Approaches for Lake Management

    Susan Hendricks1,2, David White1,2, Bommanna Loganathan3, and Kate He2

    1Hancock Biological Station, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky; 3Department of Biological Sciences, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky; 2Department of Chemistry, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky

    Kentucky Lake (Tennessee River) is the largest man-made reservoir east of the Mississippi River, USA. Trend analyses of several physicochemical and biological variables in the 30-year long-term database reveal important changes and indicate that ‘tipping points’ may have been reached in lake chemistry and its watershed that have enabled successful species invasions (e.g., zebra mussels, Asian carp). Significant multidecadal increases were found for water temperature, total calcium carbonate alkalinity, calcium ion, chloride ion, silicon dioxide, Secchi depth, and light penetration. Multidecadal decreases were found for silicon dioxide, soluble reactive phosphate, turbidity, sulfate, and primary production. Variables that remained relative constant include chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The new source of calcium is likely from increased use of road deicing brine (calcium chloride) over the past decade and from runoff and precipitation containing higher alkalinities. Between 2012 and 2017, calcium levels exceeded the 21–23 mg/l threshold for zebra mussels thus enabling their permanent establishment in the lake by 2017. Long-term effects of invasive species on the plankton population still are to be determined, but the three-decade decrease in primary production is unmistakable even though chlorophyll a has remained fairly constant from year to year. Water temperature changes are likely due to climate change while increases or decreases in other variables are due to increasing or decreasing anthropogenic pollutants and land-use change within the watershed.

 

C2: Autonomous Sampling and Automated Techniques
Moderator: Steve Souza, Princeton Hydro, LLC, Ringoes, New Jersey

  • Semi-Automated Method for Detecting and Counting Cells of Cyanobacterial Colonies and Filaments
    Frances Buerkens

    Semi-Automated Method for Detecting and Counting Cells of Cyanobacterial Colonies and Filaments

    Frances Buerkens1, Peggy Lehman2, and Harry Nelson1

    1Fluid Imaging Technologies, Scarborough, Maine; 2California Department of Fish & Wildlife, Stockton, California

    Harmful algae blooms are increasing in frequency and intensity. Public safety and conservation agencies demand a replicable and scalable method to rapidly detect and enumerate cells comprising cyanobacterial colonies and filaments. The FlowCam is a proven technology that identifies taxa to the genus level and provides an estimate of the abundance of individual cells. It combines digital imaging, flow cytometry, and microscopy to calculate the dimensions, biovolume and abundance of cells. The FlowCam Cyano leverages recent technological developments – a 633 nm laser – enabling the instrument to distinguish cyanobacteria from other algae in a water sample. The abundance of cells within colonies and filaments are counted using a simple Excel based formula, enabling monitoring agencies and researchers to rapidly enumerate cells in large sample volumes. The FlowCam system facilitates an accurate measurement of cell abundance for large folded colonies because the colonies flatten within the unique flow cell chamber. Here we present an overview of the technology along with HAB field data from freshwater systems that affect drinking water and recreational lakes across North America.

  • Innovations in Water Quality Sonde Integration and Cloud-Based Data Automation
    Eric Robinson

    Innovations in Water Quality Sonde Integration and Cloud-Based Data Automation

    Eric Robinson

    In-Situ Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado

    This workshop provides an overview of the newest water quality sondes and sensors from In-Situ, designed for ease-of-integration with systems on telemetry. The workshop will also discuss automating connections between In-Situ’s HydroVu cloud data services and your environmental database via an API, with real world examples. Save time and eliminate data entry errors by learning how to automatically import your In-Situ data into your database.

  • Building a Lake-Scale Smart-Sensor Network for Intelligent Environmental Monitoring
    Michael Kelly

    Building a Lake-Scale Smart-Sensor Network for Intelligent Environmental Monitoring

    Michael R. Kelly, Eli M. Dow, Vincent W. Moriarty, John Ma, and Harry R. Kolar

    IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, New York

    Lake George is a freshwater oligotrophic lake in upstate New York. The Jefferson Project at Lake George, a partnership between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, IBM, and The FUND for Lake George is studying the lake through a new observational sensor and intelligent computing network. This advanced cyberphysical system augments ongoing traditional scientific experimentation and data collection. Data from multisensor platforms in and around the lake are assimilated by coupled computer models for weather, runoff, circulation, and the food web, and also provide validation for these models. A better understanding of these processes within the lake and surrounding watershed is enabling more informed decision making and long-term preservation of this valuable resource.

    The Smart-Sensor Network design and implementation will be presented. Advanced environmental monitoring functionality is made possible by distributed Internet of Things (IoT) computing nodes and bidirectional communications within the sensor network. Manual, automated, and adaptive monitoring capabilities of the network operation are described, and examples of data collected through this advanced network will be shown.

 

C3: Ohio Lakes
Moderator: Shannon Brattebo, Tetra Tech, Inc., Spokane, Washington

  • Nutrient Issues Affecting Ohio’s Inland Lakes: Evolution of Program and Lessons Learned
    Shannon Brattebo

    Nutrient Issues Affecting Ohio’s Inland Lakes: Evolution of Program and Lessons Learned

    Rick Wilson1, Shannon Brattebo2, Harry Gibbons3, and Kevin Kratt4

    1Ohio EPA, Columbus, Ohio; 2Tetra Tech, Inc., Spokane, Washington; 3Tetra Tech, Inc., Seattle, Washington; 4Tetra Tech, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio

    Over the past several years, the State of Ohio has taken steps to advance the State’s nutrient reduction efforts. Some of these efforts are specifically focused on reducing the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms in inland lakes and lakes that are sources of drinking water. Ohio EPA programmatic planning continues to evolve regarding strategic collection and use of data and with engagement of appropriate watershed stakeholders. Tetra Tech provided Ohio EPA with recommendations on how to best develop a more robust lake management planning process which includes collaboration among agency staff to prioritize lakes and training of personnel on lake monitoring and management. A summary of these recommendations as they relate to Ohio’s efforts to restore and protect inland lakes from nutrient related impairments will be provided. In addition, examples and lessons-learned from lake management programs at Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), Buckeye Lake, and Kiser Lake will be discussed. GLSM, Buckeye Lake, and Kiser Lake are large, shallow inland lakes that are heavily impaired due to excess nutrients from both the watershed and internal loading. GLSM is also a drinking water supply. Implementation of a variety of lake management strategies by the State, partner organizations, and land owners have led to watershed nutrient load reductions and measurable water quality improvement at both GLSM and Buckeye Lake.

  • Tappan Lake Nutrient Reduction Initiative: An Interdisciplinary Water Research and Collaboration Initiative Among Various Organizations to Eliminate HABs from the Tappan Lake Water
    Fernanda Craig and Josh Britton

    Tappan Lake Nutrient Reduction Initiative: An Interdisciplinary Water Research and Collaboration Initiative Among Various Organizations to Eliminate HABs From the Tappan Lake Water

    Fernanda Craig1 and Josh Britton2

    1Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District, New Philadelphia, Ohio; 2Harrison Soil & Water Conservation District, Cadiz, Ohio

    In response to persistent, low-level concentrations of microcystin in Tappan Lake water over the past few years, the Tappan Lake Nutrient Reduction Initiative (TLNRI) was designed to eliminate the presence of harmful algal blooms, and their resultant water-borne toxins, in Tappan Lake water, within the next decade. The TLNRI relies on a partnership of multiple organizations, all of which support the goal of achieving long-term, sustainable improvements in Tappan Lake water quality, through administrative, technical and/or financial support. The TLNRI currently envisions three steps toward achieving its goal; The three phases include a comprehensive study of existing water quality data for the Tappan Lake watershed, and the identification of the data gaps, the collection of data (to fill identified data gaps) resulting in enough technical information to support a confident evaluation and selection of remedial actions for the watershed, and the implementation of a remedial action plan for the watershed, including education programs. This presentation will highlight this interdisciplinary water research and collaboration among organizations, and the participation of all the scientists, who come with a variety of expertise in water quality and/or socio-economic activities in the watershed. The presentation will explore the current accomplishments and progress achieved through this initiative, as well as future milestones and goals.

 

C4: Algal Toxins
Moderator: Marty Hilovsky, EnviroScience, Inc., Stow, Ohio

  • Ecological Role of Microcystin: Evidence from a Field Study
    Aabir Banerji

    Ecological Role of Microcystin: Evidence from a Field Study

    Aabir Banerji, Mark Bagley, Jody Shoemaker, Dan Tettenhorst, and Jorge SantoDomingo

    US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio

    Microcystis aeruginosa is a common constituent of freshwater harmful algal blooms and can produce microcystin, a potentially lethal hepatotoxin. Understanding drivers of change in microcystin concentration may be beneficial in establishing best practices. Microcystin is hypothesized to function at least secondarily as both an allelochemical and an anti-predator defense. If microcystin is effective in these ecological roles, then relative abundances of certain predators and competitors of Microcystis should decrease with increasing microcystin concentration. In contrast, relative abundances of taxa that utilize (degrade) microcystin should increase with elevated microcystin concentrations. We tested these hypotheses by investigating associations among microcystin, Microcystis, and the overall plankton community using water samples collected from a multipurpose reservoir in southeastern Ohio. We measured microcystin concentrations via mass spectrometry and profiled the plankton community via 16S and 18S DNA metabarcoding analyses. We used random forest regression analyses to determine if variation in microcystin concentration and Microcystis relative abundance was associated with changes in the planktonic community. We found that 74% of total variance in microcystin concentration and 89% total variance in Microcystis relative abundance could be explained by changes in the planktonic community. However, we found no evidence for antagonistic interactions between microcystin and ecologically relevant taxa, suggesting that microcystin performs other roles. Despite numerical dominance of arthropod DNA among eukaryotic sequences, arthropods had negligible explanatory power, whereas microbes such as protists and heterotrophic bacteria were tightly linked to microcystin levels. These microbes may warrant further attention as potential indicators or remediators of microcystin.

  • Management of Cyanobacteria and their Associated Cyanotoxins and Taste and Odor Compounds
    Fred Lubnow

    Management of Cyanobacteria and Their Associated Cyanotoxins and Taste and Odor Compounds

    Fred S. Lubnow

    Princeton Hydro, LLC, Exton, Pennsylvania

    Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are responsible for a large portion of the water quality problems experienced in both the surface waters of potable water supplies and well as recreational waterbodies. In addition to generating nuisance and aesthetically displeasing blooms and surface scums, many cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins, which pose potential health problems for humans, pets and livestock. In addition, cyanobacteria can also produce taste and odor (T&O) compounds such as geosmin and methyl-isoborneol (MIB); while these compounds do not pose health hazards they can produce unpleasant taste and odors in potable water supplies.

    This presentation will briefly review the ecology of cyanobacteria, which will include a description of conditions that typically result in nuisance blooms as well as how they are adapted to be very successful in freshwater ecosystems. However, the focus of the presentation will be to review protocol and actions associated with measuring and managing the production of cyanotoxins and T&O compounds in potable and recreational waterbodies. The management portion will include both proactive and reactive measures to avoid and minimize the generation of such nuisance compounds, respectively. Finally, the presentation will provide recommendations on how to move forward with the implementation of a Cyanobacteria Management Plan using the PARE program.

  • Assessing the Role of Vertical Mixing in Modulating Cyanobacteria Blooms in Shallow Reservoirs
    Daniel Obenour

    Assessing the Role of Vertical Mixing in Modulating Cyanobacteria Blooms in Shallow Reservoirs

    Daniel R. Obenour1, Yue Han1, Jeremy Smithheart1, Robyn Smyth2, and Tarek N. Aziz1

    1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; 2Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York

    Transport phenomena are important drivers of water quality in aquatic systems. In lakes and reservoirs, vertical mixing through turbulent diffusion is expected to influence the dominance of problematic cyanobacteria relative to other algal taxa. In this study, a systematic approach for calibrating and validating a vertical mixing model is presented, followed by a statistical analysis of how vertical mixing, nutrients, and other environmental factors influence formation of cyanobacteria blooms. The mixing model was originally developed for Jordan Lake, a eutrophic reservoir in North Carolina, and model outputs compare favorably with thermistor chain records and in situ diffusion estimates obtained from a temperature micro-profiler and dye tests. The model was used to determine major meteorological controls on vertical diffusion, water temperature, and water column stability, as well as the potential influence of mechanical surface-layer circulators that were installed in portions of the study area. The model was also applied to characterize vertical mixing in two other North Carolina reservoirs with unique geometries, depths, and artificial mixing applications. Using simulated diffusion rates and stability metrics for all three reservoirs, coupled with multiple years of nutrient and phytoplankton community sampling data, a hierarchical multiple linear regression was developed to assess key relationships influencing cyanobacteria dominance and total biomass. Our results indicate the importance of vertical mixing relative to other factors influencing cyanobacteria proliferation. Using the integrated models, we assess the potential efficacy of artificial mixing applications to mitigate these blooms.

 

C5: Hypolimnetic Withdrawal
Moderator: Gertrud Nürnberg, Freshwater Research, Baysville, Ontario, Canada

  • Revisit of the Lake Restoration Technique: Hypolimnetic Withdrawal
    Gertrud Nürnberg

    Revisit of the Lake Restoration Technique Hypolimnetic Withdrawal

    Gertrud K. Nürnberg

    Freshwater Research, Baysville, Ontario, Canada

    Hypolimnetic withdrawal is an established lake restoration technique in Europe that has been underused in lakes and reservoirs of North America. Its operating and maintenance efforts are low because it is based on the damming of surface outflow and discharging of bottom water, thus removing unwanted substances from the hypolimnion. Since the first application in 1954, hypolimnetic withdrawal has been studied in more than 50 lakes including the deep-water withdrawal in large reservoirs, in small man-made ponds, and in remote lakes. Current applications include an urban impoundment in Michigan to treat cyanobacteria blooms, a Californian canyon reservoir, and a Canadian agricultural lake. New applications take special consideration of treating the withdrawal water and involve Swedish Bornsjön, the back-up drinking water system for Stockholm Vatten, and a Finnish lake, Kymijärvi. The comparison of water quality variables before and during treatment indicates decreasing eutrophication in most, but not all, treated lakes. The current study investigates the working principle of hypolimnetic withdrawal and strives to separate treatment effect from concomitant influences, including external load reduction and climate effects. Potential negative effects of hypolimnetic withdrawal due to influences on the thermal structure of a lake are explored. The importance of treating the withdrawal water is discussed.

  • Battling High Internal Phosphorus Loads with Hypolimnetic Withdrawal and a Unique Water Treatment Plant in Lake Bornsjön, Sweden
    Johanna Ansker

    Battling High Internal Phosphorus Loads with Hypolimnetic Withdrawal and a Unique Water Treatment Plant in Lake Bornsjön, Sweden

    Johanna Ansker

    Stockholm Water and Waste, Stockholm, Sweden

    The lake Bornsjön (6.6 km2) serves as a drinking water backup for the City of Stockholm, Sweden. It has been suffering from hypoxia and internal phosphorus (P) loading for several decades. To improve hypolimnetic water quality, the restoration treatment of hypolimnetic withdrawal is being implemented. The withdrawn water started to be treated in a special water treatment plant in 2017. This treatment plant is a unique treatment facility, as it combines well-known water purification techniques with lake restoration knowledge. The treatment plant design is to both, prepare water for drinking water and to treat P-rich water from the hypolimnion. For two months/year the plant pumps water through a 4.5 km long pipe from the deepest basin of Bornsjön. The P-rich water is treated with aluminium sulphate, passes through four flocculation chambers, and is left to settle in lamella sedimentation basins followed by rapid sand filtration. The waters total P has then been reduced from 490 µg/l to 10 µg/l and is led back into the hypolimnion in a different basin, where the oxygen-rich water prevents hypoxia. During the initial adjustment period in 2017 the withdrawal flow rate averaged 300 m3/h and P concentration ranged 330-840 µg/l. Average P removal was 95% and peaked at 97.5 %. During the one-month treatment period, almost 170 kg phosphorus was removed from Bornsjön. It is estimated that the plant can run at a rate of 500 m3/h so that 300–400 kg P can be removed in the 2018 treatment period (late August – late October).

 

C6: Innovative Watershed Planning (WMAO)
The Water Management Association of Ohio (WMAO) is offering this session concurrent with the NALMS Symposium and it is open to NALMS attendees.

  • The Art of Building Nonpoint Source Implementation-Strategic (NPS-IS) Plans for Successful Project Funding
    Deanna Bobak

    The Art of Building Nonpoint Source Implementation-Strategic (NPS-IS) Plans for Successful Project Funding

    Deanna Bobak

    Civil & Environmental Consultants, Inc., Toledo, Ohio

    In order to receive nonpoint source funding (Section 319) from state and federal agencies, projects must be included in an approved nine-element plan. Of the more than 1,500 watershed assessment units in Ohio, only a small percentage have approved Nonpoint Source-Implementation Strategic (NPS-IS) plans. In general, NPS-IS plan development includes the identification of causes and sources of impairment, the delineation of critical areas in which project implementation is most likely to address impairment and the inclusion of projects that will move a watershed toward impairment delisting. Authored by numerous entities (watershed champions), these plans use a common template from Ohio EPA, but vary in the approach taken during development. Strategic planning and key stakeholder involvement in NPS-IS plan development has yielded over $300,000 in project funding across several watershed assessment units in the Lower Maumee watershed in just under one year, with additional projects earmarked for funding. This presentation will demonstrate a path to project funding by incorporating a successful plan development approach to leverage grant dollars.

  • Big Data's Impact on Water Resources Management
    John Menninger

    Big Data’s Impact on Water Resources Management

    John Menninger

    Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio

    Big data. Internet of things. Ubiquitous sensing. Cloud storage and computing. Artificial intelligence. These buzzwords typically associated with the high tech industry and Silicon Valley are making their way into water resources management and will transform how the industry operates.

    The speaker will present recent advances in technology likely to impact the industry, provide case studies on the use of big data applications on recent projects and identify opportunities for water resources managers to improve their organization. Examples will include use of sensor networks and machine learning for real-time water quality monitoring and alarms; application of multi-variate statistical analyses with Monte Carlo simulations to better understand flood risk; and the implications of cloud computing on the performance of hydrologic, hydraulic and water quality models.

  • Using Web Based Interactive Tools for Better Watershed Management and Resource Protection
    David Rutter

    Using Web Based Interactive Tools for Better Watershed Management and Resource Protection

    David Rutter

    Ohio Kentucky Indiana Regional Council of Governments, Cincinnati, Ohio

    The Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana Regional Council of Governments has leveraged funds from both state and federal sources to develop web based tools and resources that improve environmental considerations in planning efforts. These tools are the Environmental Viewer, My Community’s Water, and www.treesandstormwater.org.

    The Environmental Viewer was developed to assist in the environmental consultation process for transportation planning but has also become a powerful tool for local communities to quickly identify potential impacts of proposed projects within their jurisdiction on environmental resources. These resources include high quality streams, protected lands, wetlands, endangered species, aquifers, prime farmland, agricultural districts, and tree canopy.

    My Community’s Water was developed for the four Ohio counties in the OKI region. This on-line tool is targeted to both local officials as well as the general public. The user, by selecting a community can explore all of the water resources within the jurisdictional boundaries including watersheds, population distribution by watershed, impervious surfaces, number of stream miles, and soils.

    The Trees and Stormwater Guide at www.treesandstormwater.org was developed in partnership with the US Forest Service, Davey Resource Group, Centerline Strategy, LLC, and the National Association of Regional Councils. This tool provides a wealth of information to aid local decision makers to incorporate trees into their stormwater management.

    Each of these tools was developed for a specific purpose but the choice to make them available to the general public on the website provides local officials, planners, and citizens the opportunity to use them in ways that support their own work and interests.

 

C7: Nutrient Loading (WMAO)
The Water Management Association of Ohio (WMAO) is offering this session concurrent with the NALMS Symposium and it is open to NALMS attendees.

  • Water Quality Impacts from Stacked Agricultural Conservation Practices
    Elizabeth Callow

    Water Quality Impacts from Stacked Agricultural Conservation Practices

    Elizabeth Callow

    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    Water quality issues resulting from non-point source pollution have negatively impacted many waterbodies around the State of Ohio and the Midwestern United States. In agricultural settings, these water quality issues have required thoughtful innovation to retain nutrients on the field for use by crops, at the edge-of-field, or in the agricultural ditch. Conservation practices are often utilized to help retain nutrients at their site of placement in both urban and agricultural landscapes. Stacking of best management practices is being investigated to evaluate the efficacy of the individual practice as well as the benefit of placing practices in series. In this study, the practices which are being evaluated include cover crop application, a two-stage ditch, and grassed surface furrow ditches. The cover crop is applied to the field which drains to the surface furrow ditches and then empties into the two-stage ditch. Each of these practices are monitored using ISCO samplers, which collect base flow and event driven water samples. Preliminary data is currently being analyzed to determine the nutrient load impacts of each practice individually, as well as the added benefit of stacking the suite of practices.

  • Agricultural Best Management Practices Impact Soil Health and Phosphorus Loadings in Lake Erie’s Maumee River Watershed
    Grey Evenson

    Agricultural Best Management Practices Impact Soil Health and Phosphorus Loadings in Lake Erie’s Maumee River Watershed

    Grey Evenson

    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    Agricultural best management actions (BMPs) have the potential to decrease phosphorus loadings from Lake Erie’s Maumee River watershed and thereby reduce the occurrence of harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Preceding work has applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs in reducing the watershed’s phosphorus loadings. However, evaluation of a subset of BMPs – specifically, no-till and cover crop rotations – has been hindered by the model’s limited capacity to represent the potentially beneficial impact of these actions on soil health and water holding capacity. First we modified the SWAT model source code to facilitate representation of increased soil water holding capacity as affected by soil health BMPs. Then we modeled the effectiveness of these BMPs and compared to scenarios prior to source code changes. Preliminary results indicate that a 1% increase in soil organic matter, as impacted by no-till and cover crop rotations, may significantly decrease phosphorus loadings to the Lake – though model predictions varied as we assessed differing literature-based descriptions of the relationship between soil organic matter and water holding capacity. Our evaluation of no-till and cover crop rotations as impacting soil health will further efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of these actions as part of a larger suite of agricultural BMPs in addressing Lake Erie harmful algal blooms and hypoxia.

  • Within-River Phosphorus Retention in Western Lake Erie Tributaries: 1900 – 2018
    Christopher Spiese

    Within-River Phosphorus Retention in Western Lake Erie Tributaries: 1900–2018

    Christopher Spiese

    Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio

    Retention of total and dissolved phosphorus (TP and DRP, respectively) within the river channel is a potential sink for these nutrients under low flow regimes and a possible additional source during high flow. P can be retained in the channel in multiple forms, including biological, chemical, and physical sequestration. A portion of this retained P can contribute to “legacy” loads, as retention can change over large time scales. This study examines the magnitude of within-river P retention over time. Using chemical data, conservative and non-conservative models for P concentrations are created and retention determined by the difference. Historical flow data from USGS gage stations across the basin provide a longer-term and more regional view of retention.

 

5:00 pm – 5:45 pm

NALMS’ Annual Membership Meeting

 

5:45 pm – 7:00 pm
Exhibitors’ Reception and Poster Session

Poster Session

  • 2017–2018 Study of Phragmites Management Effects at the Esplanade
    Bregieta Arvidson

    2017-2018 Study of Phragmites Management Effects at The Esplanade

    Brea Arvidson

    SŌLitude Lake Management, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts

    As a primary greenspace of Boston, Massachusetts, The Esplanade is a public park that supports thousands of visitors, programs, events, and wildlife. The park is relatively young, having been constructed in the 1930s, creating a prime environment for non-native species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) and false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) despite park maintenance and native-based landscaping. During this study, we documented the short-term effects of multiple management techniques on Phragmites and established a foundation for future management at The Esplanade. Seven 600 ft2 plots of contiguous Phragmites growth were established for multiple management strategies: cutting-tarping (1), cutting (1), herbicide-surfactant pairings (4), and non-management/control (1). Two herbicides (active ingredients imazapyr and imazamox) were selected for four herbicide-surfactant plots, each paired with two different surfactants – a methylated seed oil (MSO) and Tactic. Monitoring for native and non-native plant species was performed before and after management, where multiple post-management monitoring sessions were completed to document regrowth or immediate changes in plant assemblages up to one year post-management. Through this study, we can determine appropriate site-specific management techniques for the Esplanade based on short-term management efficacy, site characteristics, and public relation.

  • Forecasting Microcystis aeruginosa Population Dynamics from Bacterioplankton DNA
    Mark Bagley

    Forecasting Microcystis aeruginosa Population Dynamics from Bacterioplankton DNA

    Mark Bagley, Jorge Santo Domingo, Aabir Banerji, and Joel Allen

    US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio

    The ability to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) in freshwater lakes and rivers is becoming critical for management of drinking water treatment and recreational activities. In Harsha Lake, located in southwestern Ohio, Microcystis aeruginosa is believed to be the dominant cyanobacterium responsible for production of harmful cyanotoxins and therefore implicated in previous recreational public health advisories. We used random forest regression modeling to evaluate the ability of bacterioplankton community dynamics, as measured by 16S rRNA gene DNA metabarcoding, together with nutrients and other environmental factors (e.g., water gauge data, wind, temperature, rainfall), to predict relative abundance of Microcystis at 4 different locations in this lake over varying timeframes. When dividing the 2015 bloom season into 4-day intervals, 81–84% of variation in Microcystis relative abundance could be explained from community and environmental data one to four intervals (~ 4–16 days) in advance. Of 6009 operational taxonomic units identified by DNA sequencing analyses, 69 were highly significant components of the models. Water gauge data (i.e., lake inflow, outflow, and height) also were highly significant model features while, surprisingly, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations were not. These data provide preliminary evidence that genetic monitoring combined with environmental data can help support management of HAB health risks.

  • The Cyanobacteria Monitoring Collaborative – An Evolving Approach to Cyanobacteria Monitoring
    Shane Bradt

    The Cyanobacteria Monitoring Collaborative – An Evolving Approach to Cyanobacteria Monitoring

    Shane Bradt1, Linda Green2, Hilary Snook3, Jasper Hobbs4, Betty Kreakie5, Jeff Hollister5, Bryan Milstead5, and James Haney1

    1University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire; 2University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island; 3US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 1, Chelmsford, Massachusetts; 4New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, Lowell, Massachusetts; 5US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island;

    Starting in 2013, the New England Cyanobacteria Monitoring Workgroup was created to collaboratively address issues related to cyanobacteria in lakes and rivers. The workgroup spent several years developing standardized monitoring methods which could be used across the region to address both short-term cyanobacteria bloom events and long-term monitoring of dynamic cyanobacteria populations. During the past three summers, over one hundred waterbodies across the region have been sampled for cyanobacteria utilizing these protocols and the data shared among workgroup participants.

    In late 2016, the workgroup officially transitioned to the Cyanobacteria Monitoring Collaborative (CMC). The name change reflects the changing nature of the group, both in approach and scope. The CMC has put increasing effort into collaboration with the goal of furthering the understanding and monitoring of cyanobacteria populations and blooms. In addition, collaborators have grown to include people and organizations outside New England, now ranging from coast to coast in the United States with additional interest from abroad.

    A newly redesigned website (https://cyanos.org) provides access to news on the monitoring programs and activities, allowing interested groups and individuals to discover, learn about, and collaborate with the CMC. The CMC’s three monitoring programs (bloomWatch, cyanoScope and cyanoMonitoring) are described in detail on the website including links to the materials and methods necessary to participate. In addition to this new virtual presence, the CMC offers training using a mobile lab in New England and virtual and site trainings beyond the group’s home region.

  • Applying Paleolimnological Techniques to Reservoirs: Challenges and Possibilities
    Victoria Chraibi

    Applying Paleolimnological Techniques to Reservoirs: Challenges and Possibilities

    Victoria L.S. Chraïbi

    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas

    Paleolimnology provides useful long-term data sets and holistic perspectives of lakes that inform management. These analyses have been applied to reservoirs with mixed results. Riverine impoundments do not follow hydrological or sedimentation models similar to most natural lakes, creating obstacles for the application of paleolimnology. For example, fast sedimentation rates, dredging, and the young age of reservoirs pose issues for dating sediment and ensuring undisturbed core chronologies. However, it is worth developing modified techniques that account for the unique properties of reservoirs. There is the potential to synchronize paleolimnological studies with modern limnological monitoring in reservoirs in order to understand how reservoir-specific processes are reflected in longer-term records. Paleolimnological analysis of reservoirs is especially promising for arid regions such as Texas and the American southwest, where natural lakes do not exist from which to procure sediment cores. This will enable the application of paleolimnology to better inform long-term management for a suite of problems that face riverine impoundments, including changes in hydrology and biotic structure due to decreasing precipitation, changing seasonality, and human activities like impoundment, diversion, and irrigation.

  • Nutrient Management Challenges in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho
    Craig Cooper

    Nutrient Management Challenges in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho

    Craig Cooper

    Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho

    Coeur d’Alene Lake is a primarily oligotrophic lake that is a critical economic and cultural resource for northern Idaho. The lake also holds over 75 million tons of metal contaminated sediments that result from historic mining practices and is part of the Bunker Hill Superfund action. The metal contaminants are managed in place via a lake management plan that seeks to sustain high levels of hypolimnetic oxygen in order to trap metals within the sediments and facilitate long term remediation and restoration. Oxygen levels in the lake are managed by limiting productivity via a nutrient management strategy. These actions also support managing overall lake water quality for beneficial use. Harmful algae blooms occur in nearby lakes and are also a potential challenge for Coeur d’Alene Lake. Trend analyses indicate that, except for lead, dissolved metals levels are declining in the lake. In contrast, trophic status is trending towards a more productive system. These factors increase the risk of metals remobilization from the sediments and pose a long-term nutrient and oxygen management challenge. Phosphorus loads are increasing in many of the Coeur d’Alene Basin’s watersheds and are primarily non-point source. Potential drivers of these changes will be discussed within the context of the known and unknown factors, as well as nutrient management activities.

  • Effects of Flow Diversion on Water Quality in a Shallow Prairie Reservoir
    John-Mark Davies

    Effects of Flow Diversion on Water Quality in a Shallow Prairie Reservoir

    John-Mark Davies1, David Vandergucht2, Clayton Williams3, and Helen Baulch4

    1Water Security Agency of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Water Security Agency of Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont; 4University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Selecting the appropriate methods for managing lake and reservoir water quality for any given waterbody depends on the management goals, site characteristics, and available resources. Buffalo Pound Reservoir is an important waterbody because it serves as the source water for over a quarter of the population in Saskatchewan, Canada. It is a shallow (mean depth 3 m), narrow (approximately 1 km) and long (approximately 30 km) reservoir in the Qu’Appelle Valley. The principal water quality concerns include cyanobacterial bloom formation that are aesthetically undesirable and have potential for cyanotoxin formation, certain types of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that serve as a precursor for disinfection byproducts during water treatment, and high productivity that can both elevate (during blooms) and depress (during decomposition) dissolved oxygen levels. Fluctuations in dissolved oxygen can interfere with water treatment and affect fisheries. Buffalo Pound receives its water from two principal sources, the upstream watershed and water transfers from Lake Diefenbaker to the Qu’Appelle River valley. These two water sources have vastly different concentrations of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, with water from Lake Diefenbaker having lower concentrations. On average, most inflow to Buffalo Pound originates from Lake Diefenbaker because the majority of inflows from the local watershed are associated with spring snow melt and therefore restricted in time. However, in some years higher flows do occur from the watershed. This study will evaluate Lake Diefenbaker releases on Buffalo Pound to better understand the effect of this management option on water quality, including the effect on the reservoir’s nutrient concentrations and DOC.

  • The Role of Reservoir Geomorphology in Determining Coverage Densities for Bathymetric Surveys in Oklahoma Water Supply Reservoirs
    James Decker

    The Role of Reservoir Geomorphology in Determining Coverage Densities for Bathymetric Surveys in Oklahoma Water Supply Reservoirs

    James Decker, Scott Robertson, Chris Adams, Julie Chambers, and Paul Koenig

    Oklahoma Water Resources Board, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Bathymetric maps illustrate the topography of the lake bed providing key information about the depth and shape of underwater terrain. In Oklahoma, bathymetric maps are relied upon for volume information when evaluating volumetric dissolved oxygen criteria and planning water supply availability. Through the application of existing procedures and staff expertise, it is clear that spacing of transects and the frequency of data collection points plays a key role in the accuracy of the survey. The objective of this study was to determine how increased distance between transects and decreased data point frequency would affect the overall accuracy of the survey. Additionally, a key question was how the geomorphology of specific reservoirs plays a role in determining the need for higher resolution of transects and data collection. Three reservoirs were used as case studies to evaluate the influence of geomorphology on determining transect spacing and data point frequency on the overall accuracy of the survey’s final lake volume calculation. Data was collected continually along pre-planned transects in each reservoir; positional data was collected using a GPS and depth data using a survey-grade echo sounder. All three surveys had a transect spacing of 75 feet and data points were collected approximately every 6 inches. The outcome of this work allows us to determine transect and data point collection needs based upon a reservoir’s geomorphology. This will improve the state’s ability to scope and budget mapping projects which assists lake mangers and water supply providers in long term water quality and quantity planning.

  • Open-Source Spectrometry for Collective Monitoring of Nutrients
    Jiansheng Feng

    Open-Source Spectrometry for Collective Monitoring of Nutrients

    Jiansheng Feng, Kelly Siman, Banafsheh Khakipoor, Adam Smith, and Hunter King

    University of Akron, Akron, Ohio

    We present a cellphone-camera-based spectrometer for measuring phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in water. The combined hardware/software system is designed to meet the following goals: 1) easy to make with standard makerspace equipment and requires only low-cost, readily available materials, such that it can be affordable/accessible in many schools, makerspaces, or fablabs; 2) be simple and user friendly, such as to function as a teaching tool in K–12 water-related lesson plans and in public parks; 3) produces accurate results comparable to commercial colorimeters or spectrometers; 4) allows simple aggregation of resulting data, which is shared with the users. The intent is to provide a much-needed supplementary data set for nutrient loading from local sources along the watershed, by local inhabitants, while promoting a tangible appreciation of water-related issues in young people.

  • The Use of Phoslock® as a Maintenance Measure to Control Cyanobacteria in a Large Brazilian Urban Lake Subjected to High Organic Load
    Tiago Finkler Ferreira

    The Use of Phoslock® as a Maintenance Measure to Control Cyanobacteria in a Large Brazilian Urban Lake Subjected to High Organic Load

    Tiago Finkler Ferreira¹, Rafael Schmitt¹, Said Yasseri², Patrick van Goethem³, and Nigel Traill³

    ¹Hidroscience Consultoria e Restauração Ambiental, Porto Alegre, Brazil; ²Institut Dr. Nowak GmbH & Co., Ottersberg, Germany; ³Phoslock Europe GmbH, Zug, Switzerland

    Lake Pampulha is an urban lake located in Belo Horizonte state, Minas Gerais, Brazil which has undergone intense eutrophication since the 1970s due to the constant input of organic loads from the main tributaries. The aim of this project was to restore the water quality of the Lake and control cyanobacteria using the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock®). A total dose of approximately 1000 tons of the product was applied to reduce internal phosphorus load from the sediment and external input from the catchment over 2016 and 2017. The total dose was divided into monthly applications due to the financial chronogram imposed by the contractor, the Municipality of Belo Horizonte. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction (> 94%) in total phosphorus concentrations which consequently led to a reduction of 92% in chlorophyll and 85% in cyanobacterial density. With such results, the aim of the project was achieved and the classification of the lake according to Brazilian legislation for surface waters (CONAMA 357/2005) was upgraded. The trophic status of the lake improved from hypereutrophic to mesotrophic. Additionally, positive changes in the phytoplankton and zooplankton community were also observed, with an increase in the abundance of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. As a result of these changes and the increase in Secchi depth (0.4 to 2 m), Daphnia sp were observed in the lake for the first time in decades. The success of the treatment confirms the efficiency of Phoslock® as a maintenance measure to reduce phosphorus concentrations, thereby controlling cyanobacteria, even in systems subjected to input of continuous and high organic loads.

  • Wisconsin’s Strategy for Prevention of Aquatic Hitchhikers
    Susan Graham

    Wisconsin’s Strategy for Prevention of Aquatic Hitchhikers

    Susan Graham and Amanda Smith

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin

    Aquatic invasive species, otherwise known as AIS, are non-native species that can take over, spread primarily by humans, and negatively impact recreation, the economy, and our native ecosystems. Given the scale of the problem and the threat, this presentation will describe what Wisconsin is doing, how we encourage citizens to partner with scientists, and what success has looked like here. Wisconsin has a comprehensive rule called NR-40 that classifies species that are prohibited, restricted, or not a concern, and guides regulations based on risks. In addition to containment and control, we employ a multi-faceted approach to prevent the introduction and spread of AIS. For the Wisconsin DNR, preventing the spread of invasive species relies on a social science understanding of human behavior.

  • Relationships Between Macrophyte Communities and Salinity Among Northwest Florida Coastal Dune Lakes
    Richard Gray

    Relationships Between Macrophyte Communities and Salinity Among Northwest Florida Coastal Dune Lakes

    Richie Gray1, Challen Hyman1,2, and Dana Stephens1

    1Mattie M. Kelly Environmental Institute, Northwest Florida State College, Niceville, Florida; 2Choctawhatchee Basin Alliance, Santa Rosa Beach, Florida

    Coastal dune lakes of northwest Florida are mesohaline ecosystems due to intermittent connection with the Gulf of Mexico. Such connection creates a dynamic environment with variance in biogeochemical fluxes and physiochemical properties. Purpose of this study was to examine impact of salinity on macrophyte communities among a population of 15 coastal dune lakes ranging in salinity from < 1 to 14 ppt. Macrophyte surveys were conducted during low and high growing seasons in each lake. Emergent, floating, and submersed macrophyte species were identified and percent area cover determined within a 1 m quadrat every 3 m along 20 m transect from the shoreline. Sonar mapping using Lowrance side scan and structure scan units was completed to assess percent area covered, density, and depth of submersed aquatic vegetation for the entire lake. Analyses of preliminary data suggest there was a negative correlation between submersed aquatic vegetation and salinity. Certain macrophyte species were found to dominate low salinity lakes (e.g., Utricularia sp.) and higher salinity lakes (e.g., Ruppia maritima). Invasive species, Panicum repens and Phragmites sp., were identified in some lakes as well. These results contribute to development of a northwest Florida coastal dune lake management plan.

  • An Immigrant Hypolimnion: The Role of Intrusion, Anoxia and Entrainment in Mediating Phosphorus and Trophic State Dynamics in Mona Lake, Michigan
    Hayden Henderson

    An Immigrant Hypolimnion: The Role of Intrusion, Anoxia and Entrainment in Mediating Phosphorus and Trophic State Dynamics in Mona Lake, Michigan

    Hayden Henderson and Martin Auer

    Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan

    Drowned river mouth systems are common along the western shore of Lake Michigan, wherein smaller lakes are hydrodynamically linked to the larger Lake Michigan system, with the potential for significant biogeochemical impact. Mona Lake, Michigan has become eutrophic as result of cultural eutrophication. Scientific studies and associated efforts to manage in-basin phosphorus loads have failed to result in improvement in trophic state conditions. The monitoring effort and subsequent modeling (LAKE2K) reported on here has shifted the management focus to internal phosphorus loads as a necessary precursor to trophic state change. The lake’s shallow depth (averaging 4.8 m) and orientation with respect to prevailing winds results in ephemeral stratification and attendant near-bottom anoxia. Sediment phosphorus release yields bottom water soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations exceeding 1 mg P/L – which become entrained and delivered to surface waters during episodic high wind events. Interestingly, the stratification-anoxia-phosphorus release phenomenon may also be engendered by intrusions of cooler (more dense) water from Lake Michigan which then lie over the sediments as an ‘immigrant’ hypolimnion wherein the sediment released phosphorus accumulates between mixing events. Occurring in late summer, when spring loads and the early-season phytoplankton response have been assimilated, phosphorus entrainment has been regularly associated with blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria (largely Microcystis). Efforts to further control watershed phosphorus loads will not be made manifest in the lake’s trophic state condition unless internal loading is first addressed. We look to artificial mixing as a means of eliminating both ephemeral stratification and ‘immigrant’ hypolimnia in accomplishing this goal.

  • Reverse Osmosis: an Alternative for Wastewater Nutrient Removal
    Kelsey Henderson

    Reverse Osmosis: An Alternative for Wastewater Nutrient Removal

    Kelsey Henderson and Karen Mancl

    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the most commonly used membrane treatment system for water reclamation from sources contaminated with nutrients and salts. The drawbacks to RO are the high energy cost and the extensive pretreatment required for membrane treatment without immediate fouling. Extracellular polymers secreted by microorganisms affect the biological fouling potential of the effluent on the membranes, however in sand bioreactors this extracellular polymer remains in the filter and thus is at lower levels in the effluent.

    RO treatment of sand bioreactor effluent should result in more limited fouling, and therefore a less rigorous cleaning and maintenance schedule of the membranes, making reverse osmosis an economically and mechanically feasible process. The experiment objectives are to: analyze the relationship between wastewater strength and rates of membrane fouling and pollutant removal; distinguish optimal membrane characteristics for treating high fat- and salt-content wastewater; and discuss the relationships between membrane fouling potentials of activated sludge effluent and slaughterhouse sand bioreactor effluent.

    Four different reverse osmosis flat sheet membranes are being tested under varying pressure conditions using sand bioreactor treated slaughterhouse effluent, both with and without added 6 g/L NaCl concentration. DI water serves as a control in the experiment.

  • Social Marketing Maneuvers, Magic, and Measurable Change!
    Jill Hoffmann

    Social Marketing Maneuvers, Magic, and Measurable Change!

    Jill Hoffmann1 and Lyn Crighton2

    1White River Alliance, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2The Watershed Foundation, North Webster, Indiana

    Ever wonder how to create a grassroots public education and engagement program that brings about real, measurable environmental change? How about creating a program where others pay you for the right to promote and widely share your messages about water quality? Join us and become a social marketing magician!

    Clear Choices, Clean Water is a social marketing campaign focused on how the choices we make impact our lakes and streams. The program’s unique strategy to increase awareness and knowledge about topics like lawn care, pet waste, native plants, and septic systems has garnered the attention and financial support of dozens of agencies, nonprofits, utilities, and municipalities. The original vision for the campaign was to change people’s behavior about a handful of common water quality issues while simultaneously evaluating the success of such efforts; however, the vision has grown to also include behavior change choices related to water conservation, soil health, tree stewardship, and volunteer participation… and now, Clear Choices has grown in its geographical reach with partner organizations implementing the program in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Missouri!

    We will explore how the pledge map, associated pollution reduction estimates, and various website analytics provide both immediate gratification for the pledgee and real-time evaluation for the program administrators. The objectives for the session are to teach participants how to think through what behavior changes they want; customize a program to fit their audiences; build widespread, lucrative partnerships; and implement a cutting-edge, action-focused public engagement program that transcends nearly every watershed stakeholder group.

  • Age Comparisons of Walleye in Select New York waters 1991–2010
    Justin Hulbert

    Age Comparisons of Walleye in Select New York Waters 1991–2010

    J.R. Hulbert1, D.S. Stich1, and S.M. Wells2

    1Biology Department, State University of New York College at Oneonta, Oneonta, New York; 2New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region 4 Fisheries, Stamford, New York

    Although multiple approaches to aging fish exist, this research focused on the use and analysis of hard parts of Walleye (Sander vitreus). The examination of hard parts like scales, spines, otoliths (earbones), and other bony parts are the most frequently used method for aging fishes. These calcified structures often contain a record of seasonal growth patterns. However, various sources of error usually complement age determination, some of which can have a serious influence on age-structured calculations. Estimated ages from these calcified structures may not equal the true age of the fish, they may differ among technicians, or even between structures. Given the importance of age data in fisheries management, it is essential to quantify and model sources of variability, precision, quality control, and bias in age determination. There is no one way to interpret error associated with aging, however combining age bias plots, and tests for symmetry and precision will offset any constraints characteristic in any single approach. Future work on percids in this region will investigate number of factors that influence age-length relationships.

  • Shifts in Phytoplankton Genera with Salinity in Northwest Florida Coastal Dune Lakes
    Linda Ivey

    Shifts in Phytoplankton Genera with Salinity in Northwest Florida Coastal Dune Lakes

    Linda Ivey and Dana Stephens

    Mattie M. Kelly Environmental Institute at Northwest Florida State College, Niceville, Florida

    Coastal dune lakes of northwest Florida have intermittent breaches to the Gulf of Mexico creating dynamic changes in salinity. This study identified phytoplankton species, categorized into genera, in two of the coastal dune lakes divergent in mean salinity. Morris Lake had a mean salinity of 0.3 ppt, while Grayton Lake had a mean salinity of 10.3 ppt. Surface water samples (0.3 m) were collected with 150 mL glass amber bottles at three open-water stations quarterly (i.e., winter, spring, summer, and fall) from 2017 through 2018. Samples were preserved at 3% Lugol’s solution and stored until processed. Samples were run at 4×, 10×, and 20× magnification using the FlowCAM (Fluid Imaging Technologies, LLC). Phytoplankton species were enumerated and mean number of species per genera calculated among magnifications per each sampling date. Variety of phytoplankton genera were found in both Morris and Grayton lakes. However, green algae, freshwater diatoms, and cyanobacteria dominated Morris Lake throughout the year. Dinoflagellates, marine diatoms, and golden-brown algae dominated Grayton Lake throughout the year. These results target lack of known phytoplankton communities within Northwest Florida coastal dune lakes, which increases ability to manage these unique systems.

  • Bioaccumulation of Selenium and Mercury in Fish Tissues of an Urban Watershed and Reservoir, Denver Colorado
    Nathan Jahns

    Bioaccumulation of Selenium and Mercury in Fish Tissues of an Urban Watershed and Reservoir, Denver Colorado

    Nathan Jahns, Shai Kamin, and Craig Wolf

    GEI Consultants, Inc., Denver, Colorado

    A portion of the Cherry Creek Watershed (Denver, Colorado) sits on natural deposits of selenium-rich, sub-surface marine shales. Natural weathering results in elevated selenium water and fish tissue concentrations in tributaries to Cherry Creek Reservoir. The watershed also lies in a populated urban area, which contributes to mercury concentrations. Elevated selenium concentrations raise concern for aquatic life use in the reservoir, while the mercury concentrations raise concern for fish consumption.

    In the Cottonwood and Lone Tree Creek tributaries, 85th percentile selenium concentrations often exceeded the chronic water quality criterion (4.6 µg/L) and selenium geomean whole-body fish tissue samples ranged from 6.3 to 24.6 and 12.6 to 17.5 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively, over a multi-year study. Water selenium concentrations differed between sites with elevated selenium typically occurring above shale. While tissue concentrations in these tributaries often exceeded the EPA whole-body tissue criterion of 8.5 mg/kg dw, muscle tissues from Walleye collected from the reservoir ranged from 2.65 to 6.0 mg/kg dw and were considerably less than the EPA muscle-based tissue criterion (11.3 mg/kg dw). The reservoir does not overlay shale and shows no reasonable potential to exceed the EPA water quality and fish tissue-based criterion.

    In Cherry Creek, total mercury water concentrations ranged from 0.00065 to 0.00192 µg/L which are below the current water quality standard for Cherry Creek Basin Segment 1 (0.01 µg/L). Mercury fish tissue concentrations ranged from 0.038 to 0.162 mg/kg wet weight (ww) for multiple species. In the reservoir, concentrations ranged from 0.019 to 0.069 mg/kg ww for Walleye. All concentrations were well below the EPA tissue-based consumption criterion of 0.3 mg/kg ww.

  • Retention Time Analysis Through a Finite Element Model at Old Woman Creek Wetland
    Yang Ju

    Retention Time Analysis Through a Finite Element Model at Old Woman Creek Wetland

    Yang Ju and Bohrer Gil

    The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    Wetlands play an important role in improving the downstream water quality. It slows down the flow from upstream and the transportation of sediments to downstream. Accurately estimate the retention time of wetlands helps us to understand the process how sediments are transported. The objective of this study is to analyze the retention time from Old Woman Creek wetland during a rainfall event. Old Woman Creek Wetland is a wetland located on the south-central shore of Lake Erie, which is part of the NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserve network. It has approximately 61 ha wetland, extending more than 1km south to Lake Erie. A dynamic sand barrier exists between the wetland and Lake Erie, which opens and closes periodically to control the water flow. When it is open, a rapid flux of water is allowed between the wetland and Lake Erie, which maintains a relative equilibrium between the lake and the creek. A numerical hydrodynamic model, DG-SWEM, was used to model the wetland elevation during one barrier break event.  A bathymetric mesh and a roughness map are created as the inputs for the model, while the upstream discharge data is used as the boundary forcing. The wetland elevation is simulated on a second time step. The results will be compared with the water depths measured at a water quality site from Old Woman Creek. The retention time is then estimated by the modeled elevation.

  • Long-Term Impacts by Applications of Fluridone and Triclopyr to Target and Non-Target Aquatic Vegetation Over a Fourteen-Year Period
    Amanda Mahaney

    Long-Term Impacts by Applications of Fluridone and Triclopyr to Target and Non-Target Aquatic Vegetation Over a Fourteen-Year Period

    Amanda Mahaney1 and Emily Mayer2

    1Solitude Lake Management, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts; 2Solitude Lake Management, Washington, New Jersey

    In 2005, the three basins of Lake Saint Catherine, Lily Pond, Little Lake, and the main basin, underwent a whole-lake fluridone treatment for Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Since then, annual spot-treatments with triclopyr have been conducted. In support of the herbicide applications, late-season modified point-intercept surveys have been carried out for the purpose of documenting the presence of native aquatic vegetation and frequency of occurrence of the non-native Eurasian watermilfoil. Fourteen years of cataloged species data allows us to examine trends and patterns over time between the long-term impacts of fluridone and triclopyr to emergent and submersed aquatic vegetation in a 950-acre northern lake.

  • Combining Citizen Science with Remote Sensing to Monitor Lake Storage
    Grant Parkins

    Combining Citizen Science with Remote Sensing to Monitor Lake Storage

    Grant Parkins1, Tamlin Pavelsky2, Sarah Yelton1, and Megan Rodgers1

    1Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; 2Department of Geological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Of the 20–40 million lakes in the world larger than 0.01 km2, only a few thousand receive regular water level monitoring. On-the-ground, automated monitoring of a fraction of these lakes would incur considerable expense. However, an inexpensive staff gauge installed in a lake can be read by anyone, making this an attractive alternative if a system is in place to collect and report the data.

    The Lake Level Monitoring Project (LLMP) engages citizen scientists in monitoring lake levels at regular intervals. This data is combined with lake surface area measurements, calculated using satellite imagery from Landsat8 and Sentinel 2 satellites, in an effort to understand how the quantity of water stored in lakes changes over time.

    In the first year of the project, LLMP has collected more than 700 lake level and 300 lake area measurements from 11 lakes in eastern North Carolina. We have found that lake level measurements submitted by citizen scientists are highly accurate when compared to pressure transducers installed at the same sites. We have found that lake stage variations are correlated within local clusters of lakes but have found that correlations among distant lakes are not significant.

    During this session, we also share strategies for developing a citizen science project, consider the motivations of citizens who participate in LLMP, and discuss feedback they have provided regarding our data reporting systems. Finally, we share plans for expanding our lake network to 200 additional lakes in the United States, Europe, and Asia within 3 years.

  • An Emerging Technology Using a Resilient Fabric Material for Living Shorelines
    Bruce Richards

    An Emerging Technology Using a Resilient Fabric Material for Living Shorelines

    Bruce Richards and Brian Fischer

    Sox Erosion Solutions, Boca Raton, Florida

    Shoreline erosion contributes to excessive losses of soil and sediment, reducing habitat in freshwater ecosystems; a new living shoreline fabric approach may be the answer. Established practices of vegetative buffering and habitat restoration are of increasing importance to policy-makers, water managers, engineers, and municipal officials. There is overwhelming scientific consensus that each coastal state will experience increased erosion due to the inevitable future rise of sea level attributable to climate change; non-coastal states will follow. A relatively recent holistic approach to stabilizing shorelines is gaining international momentum utilizing a proprietary patented bioengineered material distributed by Sox Erosion Solutions of Boca Raton, Florida. This rigorous fiber technology has been in place for 18 years and has sustained shorelines with jagged rocky shores along high wave energy embankments. Native plants have been integrated into the fabric shorelines to improve buffering of nutrients particularly phosphorus which adheres to fine grain surface sediments. This presentation will show before and after data of successful installations in a relatively short temporal scale. We will examine data collected from field studies on native plant recruitment, and shoreline habitat improvement. The conclusion will highlight key lessons learned specifically for lake managers. Our presentation will also review our future research project goals as possible opportunities for students or engineering firm collaborations.

  • ELISA for Anabaenopeptins and Its Use for the Monitoring of Source Waters
    Fernando Rubio

    ELISA for Anabaenopeptins and Its Use for the Monitoring of Source Waters

    Paige Ruthardt1, Tom Glaze1, Mark Aubel2, Amanda Foss2, and Fernando Rubio1

    1Abraxis Inc., Warminster, Pennsylvania; 2Green Water Laboratories, Palatka, Florida

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, and in brackish waters throughout the world. The wide variety of cyanotoxins and their congeners can lead to frequent exposure of humans through consumption of meat, fish, seafood, blue-green algal products and water, accidental ingestion of contaminated water and cyanobacterial scum during recreational activities, and inhalation of cyanobacterial aerosols. Cyanotoxins can also occur in the drinking water supply. In order to monitor human exposure, sensitive analytical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are often used.

    Anabaenopeptins (APs) are cyclic peptides comprised of a ring of five amino acid residues connected to an exocyclic residue through an ureido linkage. Anabaenopeptins were first isolated from the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae. To date at least 96 anabaenopeptins have been reported, the various congeners are structurally related. Planktothrix, Nodularia, Microcystis, Lyngbya, and Schizothrix, have also been reported as producers of anabaenopeptins. APs have been shown to be inhibitors of protein phosphatases and carboxypeptidase A.

    An ELISA for the monitoring of anabaenopeptins was developed and utilized for the detection of these toxins on 109 source water samples obtained from 30 midwestern sites during the 2016 to 2017 time period. The samples were also characterized for microcystins concentration by ELISA; and genes assays for mcyE, 16S, and sxtA by PCR. Nineteen of the samples were analyzed by PP2A, and by a LC/MS/MS method developed by Greenwater Laboratories. The results obtained indicate that anabaenopeptins are found at high concentration (up to 103 ppb) and at a high incidence rate. Details of the methods and data obtained will be presented.

  • Nutrient Loading from Stormwater Systems in Dayton, Ohio
    Zachary Schultz

    Nutrient Loading from Stormwater Systems in Dayton, Ohio

    Zachary M. Schultz1, Silvia E. Newell1, and Katie G. Norris2

    1Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio; 2City of Dayton Department of Water, Dayton, Ohio

    The Great Miami River receives nutrient inputs from agricultural runoff, urban wastewater effluent and storm water, which together have led to occurrences of high nitrate concentrations. This project focuses on phosphate and nitrate contributions from urban, suburban, and industrial storm water systems in Dayton, Ohio over the course of one year. Four outfalls of various land use types were selected to be representative of Dayton’s stormwater input to the Great Miami River. These four outfall sites are sampled for nutrient concentrations twice each month, once during dry weather and once during wet weather. This year-long sampling complements two decades of annual dry weather sampling and wet weather sampling about every five years. Long-term dry weather sampling shows that stormwater nitrate concentrations have increased significantly over the last 20 years. This is the first study in Dayton to focus on outfall sampling in all seasons.

  • Nutrient and Trace Metal Co-limitation of Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes
    Jordyn Stoll

    Nutrient and Trace Metal Co-limitation of Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes

    Jordyn T. Stoll1, David M. Costello1, Andrea S. Fitzgibbon1, and James H. Larson2

    1Kent State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent, Ohio; 2US Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin

    Efforts to reduce the frequency and extent of harmful algal blooms (HABs) require knowledge about factors that control algal growth and toxin production. While labile N and P fuel primary production, micronutrients play a lesser-understood role as the enzymatic engines that promote rapid and efficient growth and toxin production. In summer 2017, we completed a mesocosm nutrient enrichment experiment using water collected from four river mouths in Lakes Michigan and Erie that encompassed sites with little algal biomass and those with active HABs. Nutrient treatments were fully factorial, including phosphate, ammonia as N, and trace metals (Fe, Zn, Ni, Mo, Mn), and were completed in triplicate. Community composition, chlorophyll a as a proxy for growth and microcystin production were quantified for each bottle. Maumee Bay algal growth was independently co-limited by N and P, while toxin production was only sustained from the initial sample in the N+trace metal treatment. The North Lake Erie community shifted to ~20% greater dominance by Microsystis spp. in N and trace metal treatments, while growth was serially limited by P, N, and trace metals, respectively. Preliminary data suggest that microcystin concentrations in algae are decoupled from biomass response to enrichment. These data demonstrate that a multi-nutrient view of elemental requirements is needed to understand the drivers of HABs in the Great Lakes.

  • Some Stormwater Ponds Release Phosphorus
    Vinicius Taguchi

    Some Stormwater Ponds Release Phosphorus

    Vinicius Taguchi1, Tyler Olsen2, John Gulliver1, Ben Janke3, Poornima Natarajan1, and Jacques Finlay4

    1St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 3St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota; 4Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota

    Stormwater retention ponds are ubiquitous in many urban landscapes but are not given much consideration post-construction. High total phosphorus (TP) concentrations from pond grab sample data for 98 ponds in Minnesota suggest that urban stormwater ponds may be releasing phosphorus (P) to receiving water bodies due to high internal loading. This is alarming because retention ponds are one of the most frequently implemented stormwater control measures (SCMs) targeting phosphorus removal. Laboratory incubations of intact sediment and water cores from 5 ponds suggest that mobile-P concentrations (iron-bound P, loosely-bound P, and labile organic P) in pond sediments and sediment oxygen demand (Smax) are indicators of P release potential. Actual P release was measured under anoxic (dissolved oxygen (DO) < 1 mg/L) conditions and was observed to be negligible under oxic conditions (DO > 1 mg/L). However, in-situ field monitoring revealed that several shallow stormwater ponds in the Twin Cities Metro Area are so strongly stratified during the spring and summer months as to prevent diurnal mixing and reoxygenation of the water column from periodic storm events. Conductivity profile measurements suggest that this is likely due to chemostratification from chlorides applied as road salt during the winter months. The resulting anoxic conditions at the sediment-water interface throughout much of the year would facilitate P release into the water column and subsequently downstream receiving water bodies.

  • The Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Within the Hypolimnion of a Dystrophic and Eutrophic Lake on Zooplankton Survival and Vertical Distribution
    Keiko Wilkins

    The Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Within the Hypolimnion of a Dystrophic and Eutrophic Lake on Zooplankton Survival and Vertical Distribution

    Keiko Wilkins and Craig Williamson

    Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

    Oxygen (O2) is fundamental to the survival of all aerobic organisms on Earth. Increased flux of terrestrially-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) into lakes is causing a reduction in O2 concentrations within the hypolimnion of lakes. O2 depletion, including hypoxia (low O2 < 2 mg/L) and anoxia (no O2), has been shown to alter the vertical distribution and decrease the abundance of zooplankton. But are low O2 concentrations themselves the greatest threat to zooplankton during periods of O2 depletion? The proposed research will test the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a toxic gas released under anoxic conditions, is more important than the lack of O2 in determining zooplankton survival and distribution. The additive effect of H2S is expected to exacerbate the effects of anoxia alone potentially causing high mortality of specific zooplankton taxa and a shift in the community composition from a more predator-dominated community to a more grazer-dominated community. In order to gauge the impact that H2S may be having on zooplankton communities, H2S and zooplankton depth distribution were monitored within both a dystrophic and eutrophic lake during June–August. Also, the tolerance of various zooplankton species to both anoxic conditions and anoxia coupled with H2S was carried out. Zooplankton tolerances to anoxia alone were shown to be taxon specific with more predacious zooplankton (Mesocyclops) being shown to have higher tolerances to anoxia than zooplankton grazers (Daphnia, Leptodiaptomus). Also, lake water containing anoxia and H2S had overall lower survival for all species than anoxic water alone.